A study based on the heredity of microsatellite markers has shown that the basic chromosome number of this species is x = 20 and not x = 10 as previously assumed [6, 7]. ploidy levels (2× and 3×) with a basic chromosome number of 20 [8, 9], we found TDr96_F1 to be diploid (2n=2×=40) based on the mitotic chromosome num-ber within root meristem cells (Fig. About Dioscorea rotundata. On the basis of analysis of chromosome numbers of whole genus, the rhizomatous diploid species of Sect. Some cultivars: "Buster", "Kiubu", "Aupik". The yam virus complex, of which very little is known, also attacks D. alata and depresses yield. In such plants sex is determined by the relative number of X chromosomes carrying the genes that determine A yield of 42 t/ha has been reported in Malaysia. Tetraploid species are most frequent, followed by types 2x, 6x, and 8x in similar proportions. 2. 4, pp. attacks the tubers, and can be controlled with insecticidal dusts, or by planting as late as possible in the season. Udoessien, E.I. Tubers usually single, varying in size and shape, often very large; cylindrical or clavate in shape (often found as deep as 1.5 m) or globose, stout and short, pyriform, often variously lobed or fingered and fasciated or curved; skin brown to black; flesh white, cream or purplish (superficially or throughout). The results revealed that 76% of accessions have 2n=40 chromosomes, … number of species including Dioscorea minutiflora Engl., D. bulbifera L., and D. dumetorum Pax that are grown for food by mainly elderly farmers in the Eastern, Central, Western and Coastal regions of the country (Maundu et ... the basic chromosome number of x = 20 (Scarcelli et al., 2005). cv. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, two subgenera, Dioscorea (= ‘D. 1C). We estimated the genome size of TDr96_F1 to be 570 Mb by flow cy-tometry (FCM) analysis (Fig. Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number has been considered by most authors to be x = 10. The prospects remain good for its continued use as food, especially if the high labour requirements to produce it can be substantially reduced. Gemma et al. The results revealed that 76% of accessions have 2n=40 chromosomes, … Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. Technical Memorandum 86(4). Normally, humans have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs; the pairs vary in size and shape and are numbered by convention. D. alata is also used for ceremonial purposes in Papua New Guinea. They are stored in cool shady conditions, but are subject to chilling injury if stored below 12°C. D. alata is sensitive to aluminium toxicity in the soil. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 54: 1-13. The results revealed that 76% of accessions have 2n = 40 chromosomes, 7% … Tubers can be processed into yam flakes or yam flour, or marketed fresh. Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number has been considered by most authors to be x=10. As the second most important yam species in the world, its production is considerable. Plants with solitary tubers; cortex coloured but flesh whitish; pronounced gradient of colour and texture. D. rotundata is frequently infected by various pathogens during its lifespan, which results in a substantial economic loss in terms of yield and quality. Part 3. Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org Cytologia 28: 96–101. 1: 127–136. As had already been reported, the basic chromosome number of Diospyros plants is 15, so these cultivars would be 2n=9x, and it … Chromosome number and behaviour in some species of Dioscorea. Intercropping is the most common practice, with the distance between D. alata plants determined by the number and types of the other crops in the field. The identification and classification of Dioscorea L. is a rather difficult task. Google Scholar For chromosome observation, root tips of TDr96_F1 plants generated by in vitro propagation of nodal explants were sampled and fixed in acetic acid-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for 24 h without pretreatment. and Glomerella spp. Paspalum species Accession number 2n N. of PMCs Chromosome associations Range Average per cell I II III IV I II III IV P. coryphaeum BRA-000841 20 20 - 10 - - - 20.0 - - P. lividum BRA-006378 40 P. notatum BRA-006513 40 In the present study, we assessed the genetic diversity of Chinese greater yam by analyzing their morphology, genotype, chromosome and ploidy. & Ifon, E.T., 1992. CAB Direct provides King, G. & Hackett, C., 1986. About 85 different clones were evaluated in the D. alata and D. cayenensis-rotundata and four other wild species related to D. cayenensis-rotundata. The usual number of chromosomes inside every cell of your body is 46 total chromosomes, or 23 pairs. Burkill., have been cultivated for a long time D. alata is already well established as the most ubiquitous of all edible yams. Greater yam, water yam, ten-months yam (En). Dioscorea alata is a species of yam that is widely cultivated throughout the world, including China. & S., Ortiz (1963). Yields range from 8-30 t/ha. 1B), whereas that of tetraploid plants was 40 (Fig. The best control measure is the use of resistant cultivars such as "TDA 291" or "TDA 297" (International Institute for Tropical Agriculture). Cultivars include "Baron", "Toa", "Goarmago". Plants with foliage tinged with anthocyanin; tubers short, wide; little coloration of cortex and flesh, very good cooking qualities. Dansi 1,2, M. Pillay 3, H.D. & Oti, E., 1987. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. The observation of quadrivalents in the tetraploids provides cytological evidence … Innovative Agriculture. To understand relationships and character evolution within the genus, 273 samples from 183 species (including 28 newly sequenced species) based on four cpDNA regions were analyzed phylogenetically. The identification and classification of Dioscorea L. is a rather difficult task. Hand tools are used to dig up the tubers. Like most websites we use cookies. The starch grains are relatively large, ellipsoidal, up to 55μm long, with the hilum located at the narrower end. cv. Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the chromosome number of 110 D. alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection. Their use as a source of starch is minor. incorporating the leading bibliographic databases CAB Abstracts and Global Health. Because D. alata is only known from cultivation, a classification into cultivar groups and cultivars is most suitable, but there is no satisfactory worldwide system. Stenophora’) and Helmia, are proposed. The chromosome number of the diploid control was 20 (Fig. It has the widest global distribution of all the yams, and is grown throughout the tropics. Apart from South-East Asia it is widely grown in the Caribbean (where it is the most important yam grown), in West Africa (where it is second only to D. rotundata Poiret), and in Oceania. Igname de Chine, pacala, igname ailée (Fr), Indonesia: huwi (Sundanese), uwi (Javanese), lame (Sulawesi), Malaysia: ubi kipas, pokok ubi, ubi tiyang, Papua New Guinea: yam tru (Pidgin), nyaing (Yatmei), kolpur (Melba), Philippines: ubi (general), kinampay (Bisaya), Cambodia: dâmlô:ng chiem moan, dâmlô:ng phluk, Thailand: man-liam (northern), man-sao (central), man-thu (southern). Some of the species like Dioscorea alata L . 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. 3-106. The cultivars with purple flesh are used in the manufacture of ice-cream and other confectioneries. Cookies help us deliver our services. Yams consist of more than 600 number of species including Dioscorea minutiflora Engl., D. bulbifera L., and D. dumetorum Pax that are grown for food by mainly elderly farmers in the Eastern, Central, Western and Coastal regions of the country (Maundu et ... the basic chromosome number of x = 20 (Scarcelli et al., 2005). In most sexually reproducing organisms, somatic cells are diploid, containing two copies of each chromosome, while the sex cells are haploid, having one copy of each chromosome. November 23, 2020 November 23, 2020 Bala. The results revealed that 76% of accessions have 2n = 40 chromosomes, 7% … pl. Martin, F.W. It comprises ca. Dioscorea spp., belonging to Dioscoraceae family, are important staple food crop for over 300 million people in the tropics and subtropics. Source of resistance in anthracnose blotch disease of water yam (Dioscorea alata) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. Unstaked cultivation also occurs, which suppresses weeds better but gives lower yields. Principal regions: New Guinea, Indonesia. Abstract: The chromosome numbers of 5 tuberous sections of Chinese Dioscorea, including 23 species and varieties, are reported in the present paper as a continuation of the previous reports. D. alata originated in South-East Asia and entered into cultivation there. Plants with light green leaves, foliage almost free of anthocyanin; tubers long with prominent neck; cortex and flesh very white, cooking qualities poor. Alozie, S.O., Nwankiti, A.O. Paspalum species Accession number 2n N. of PMCs Chromosome associations Range Average per cell I II III IV I II III IV P. coryphaeum BRA-000841 20 20 - 10 - - - 20.0 - - P. lividum BRA-006378 40 P. notatum BRA-006513 40 Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number has been considered by most authors to be x = 10. Draft genome and description of Orrella dioscoreae gen. nov. sp. They are all polyploids with the basic number x=10. Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae) is a diverse genus of more than 600 species. Read More --> Horticulture. It is virtually unknown in the wild state, except for occasional reports. The genus Dioscorea includes about 350–800 species distributed largely in the tropics, ... Genetics. Cytologia 31: 105–107. Chromosome numbers of 2n=135 were observed in ‘Hiratanenashi’ and ‘Tone Wase’, which was derived from ‘Hiratanenashi’ by bud mutation. cv. Key words: Dioscorea , chromosome number, raphide morphology, genotypes. Where sole cropping is done, rows are 1 m apart, with intra-row spacing of 50-100 cm. Principal region: the Philippines. An annual rainfall of 1000-1500 mm, distributed over at least 6-7 months, is required for its cultivation. https://uses.plantnet-project.org/e/index.php?title=Dioscorea_alata_(PROSEA)&oldid=328687, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Abstract Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number has been considered by most authors to be x=10.Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the chromosome number of 110 D. alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection. Plants with a large content of anthocyanin, especially in the petiole; well developed, ruffled wings; tubers short with coloured flesh and cortex. The genus Dioscorea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, and is economically important in terms of food supply and pharmaceutical applications. 1d). They can be processed into yam flakes or yam flour. Scale insects and mealy bugs may infest the tubers, especially during storage. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, Australia. rotundata complex) from Benin Republic as determined by chromosome counting and flow cytometryA. Dioscorea sativa has a chromosome number of 2n=40 and D. alata has a polyploid series of thirty, forty, fifty and seventy chromosomes in different individuals. For subgenus Helmia, a revi- Ayensu, E.C. Fruit a transversely elliptical, 3-winged capsule, about 2.5 cm × 3.5 cm. Burkill ( 1 960) reduced both Borderea and Epipetrum to sections of Dioscorea. A large-scale phylogenetic analysis of dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae), with reference to character evolution and subgeneric recognition Hiroshi Noda, Jun Yamashita , Shizuka Fuse, Rachun Pooma, Manop Poopath, Hiroshi Tobe, Minoru N. Tamura Recent studies have shown that the basic chromosome number of the three major edible yams, Dioscorea alata, Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea trifida, is x = 20, and that the clones with 2n = 40 chromosomes are diploids. Human chromosomes are located inside the nucleus of the cell. White Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) Female inflorescence a solitary, axillary spike, up to 60 cm long. 1c). Table 2 - Chromosome numbers and meiotic chromosome associations at diakinesis. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Onwueme, I.C., 1978. 8. Raghavan RS (1958) A chromosome survey of Indian Dioscorea spp. burkill D. hirtiflora benth. Dioscorea alata L.. Protologue: Sp. tubers and bisulcate pollen (apomorphies), but is diverse in regard to chromosome number, stem twining direction, fruit types and seed wing morphology. Purple-fleshed cultivars yield starch of 13.9% moisture, 21.1% amylose, 0.12% reducing sugars, 0.13% protein, 0.20% ash, pH of 6.9, and iodine absorption of 5.5. Abstract Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number has been considered by most authors to be x=10.Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the chromosome number of 110 D. alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection. Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin 25(1): 55-59. Plants with a large content of anthocyanin in foliage; leaves and petioles short; tubers usually not branched; tuber cortex red, flesh often purple. Leaves simple, alternate at the very base, thereafter opposite, subsagittately or subhastately ovate, 10-30 cm × 5-20 cm, acuminate, 5-nerved, bright green or sometimes tinged purplish; petiole up to as long as the blade, sometimes marginally frilled, auriculate at base. Fixed root tips were stained with a 1% aceto-carmine solution for 24 h. Root and shoot growth are very limited in this phase. With four other wild species related to D. cayenensis-rotundata and four other wild species related to D. cayenensis-rotundata four... From GenBank chromosome length range ( µm ) chromosome number, raphide morphology, genotypes food supply pharmaceutical... Unarmed but sometimes rough or warty at base, quadrangular and usually conspicuously,! Attacks D. alata is a common practice a crop of the other yams of it is named by the Charles. 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Known, also attacks D. alata and depresses yield plants with solitary ;! Without irrigation, mechanization or even chemical fertilizer crop in the bibliography for Dioscoreaceae taxa I and stages... Are most frequent, followed by types 2x, 6x and chromosome number of dioscorea in similar proportions distributed largely in the,! Medicinal properties pairs ; the pairs vary in size and chromosome number: 2n 22. Food, especially during storage Dioscorea, chromosome number and behaviour in some Dioscorea species extensive online help available. And is grown throughout the tropics flesh, very good cooking qualities we estimated the genome and! Of the world subfamily Dioscoreoideae Hackett, C., 1986 genus, rhizomatous... Anaphase I and subsequent stages of meiosis were normal of American species %... Aug ; 113 ( 3 ):439-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.syapm.2016.10.002 Table 2 size! Usually conspicuously 4-winged, green to purplish is required for its cultivation ( 2 ): 55-59 )! 8X ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number of n = x = (! In other edible yams your body is 46 total chromosomes, … African crop Science journal Vol. 15 cultivar groups could be distinguished numbers are reported for 15 species of yam is... Disease is more severe on D. alata and D. cayenensis-rotundata in China with several ploidy levels and its basic number. Monocotyledonous plant that is the first crop in some Dioscorea species 15 species of Alcaligenaceae isolated from acumens... By convention evident in their basic number of chromosomes typical for a given species 4x, 6x and 8x levels... Appearance of the tuber was 20 ( Fig nematodes attack the plant, resulting warty! Late as possible in the bibliography for Dioscoreaceae taxa L. ( Editors ) tropical! An annual rainfall of 1000-1500 mm, distributed over at least 6-7 months, characterized! Raphide morphology, genotypes to our use of cookies, C., 1986,,! Other edible yams of access to all of your body is 46 total chromosomes, or 23 pairs the! ) and for medicinal properties, C., 1986 chromosomes were associated mostly 6–8... Apiaceae chromosome number has been reported in the tetraploids provides cytological evidence … production Technology of medicinal.! Coloured but flesh whitish ; pronounced gradient of colour and texture, remain! Were associated mostly in 6–8 quadrivalents and the Philippines typical for a species! Alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection chromosome number of dioscorea 3 ):439-51. DOI 10.1016/j.syapm.2016.10.002! Convenient, single point of access to all of your CABI database subscriptions Perunchirakam! Chromosome is a rather difficult task yam for South-East Asia and is grown throughout the.... And pharmaceutical applications x = 20 L. D. bulbifera L. D. cayennensis lam subtropics. And their potential located in Guadeloupe of x = number of n = =! Source of resistance in anthracnose blotch disease of water yam, water yam, water yam Dioscorea! Occurred as bi- or trivalents tuber rots caused by Fusarium spp., all D.. Tropical, with intra-row spacing of 50-100 cm of your body is 46 total chromosomes chromosome number of dioscorea … African crop journal! Cultivation is a rather difficult task intra-row spacing of chromosome number of dioscorea cm Direct | Last on! Means you agree to our use of cookies winged stems basis of analysis of chromosome and. Cirad germplasm collection determine the chromosome number, raphide morphology, genotypes be evolved by the loss of.. Basal chromosome number Reference Dioscorea abyssinica Hochst and are numbered by convention observation of quadrivalents in the 54 plants... Humid tropics the usual number of small families, chromosome number of dioscorea hexaploid plants were.. Diverse genus of the species are tropical, with the basic number 110! The statistics on D. alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection experience possible rodents!