Coral reefs are fragile and susceptible to harm from many sources that have differing effects. More research on the potential of using coral larvae to restock denuded reefs, now showing some promise in the Pacific, may lead to more use of this method in reef restoration. Coral reef communities are linked in an inextricable web of commonality. Coral reefs are essential to healthy coasts and vibrant economies, playing a critical role in everything from protecting lives and property to supporting thousands of businesses. Rigney, H. 1990. in a relatively formal setting. 1989. Watch for changes both outside and within the MPA that will have impacts on the coral reef system. Marine reserves - A blueprint for protection. Coral reef MPA managers should assess and, as needed and feasible, address the following: Harvesting Activities -decline of populations and loss of higher level carnivores within the ecosystem from over harvest, physical damage from fishing gear, Recreational Use - anchor and diver damage to corals, disturbance of reef organisms, pollution of the reef environment, Water Pollution -various impacts ranging from loss of light to nutrient changes and disease introductions, Coastal Development -increased sedimentation, altered upland runoff and nutrient input to the reef system, loss of juvenile nursery habitat. This initiative was undertaken by marine park managers within the Caribbean region who have created a group called Caribbean Marine Protected Area Managers (CAMP). 50:2019-28. and R.E. 1978. The ultimate purpose of monitoring is to provide early detection of change, and monitoring programs should be linked with and made an ongoing part of overall management strategies. Development of a resource map is an essential step in management. 1978. For example, more research is needed on coral pathogens and on their possible link to sewage, sedimentation, or other factors associated with humans. 1994. Education is usually more formal and begins with introducing the marine realm with a specific curricula. Partnerships that are fiscally and logistically responsible, can draw on individual strengths and provide for better management. Coral reef area managers should also keep in mind that additional training may be essential for employees to become knowledgeable in activities such as law enforcement, safety and first aid, operation of specialized equipment, public speaking, and other practices that are necessary for effective management but not normally included in school curricula. Because the management of coral reef ecosystems is still a relatively new and evolving science, additional training is often highly valuable in helping employees and managers keep abreast of new information and technologies. Cost recovery through user fee programs is also being used at many designated parks and refuges to supplement area base funding. Oceanus 36: 35--40. Networking can afford benefits to management that are far reaching but not always apparent. Restoration may take many forms, including improving water quality, restoring fish or shellfish populations depleted by over harvest, and restoring coral structural damage from such things as ship groundings. Back to list of elements. In addition, it may be important to address smaller scale changes in coral reefs before they grow and become apparent in an aerial photograph. Of State, Washington D.C. 63p. Sharing management experiences and information among managers and scientists working with coral reef protected areas is extremely useful. Regional networking needs coordination and constant nurturing. While managers have no control over hurricanes or outbreaks of coral disease, they can control recreational use of reefs, fishing intensity, anchoring of boats and, in some cases, sedimentation from careless coastal development. and J.R. Clark. Aerial photographs, base resource maps and GIS databases should be considered essential tools for the managers of coral reef ecosystems and every manager should seek to have these products available. Evaluation should be continual and begin at the time of implementation, but a formal evaluation mechanism or procedure is desirable. @ and R.E. Damage assessments can include the costs of surveying the damage, the value of the resources lost, and the costs of restoration (including monitoring of results for success). UNESCO Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology. Reefs are stressed by both natural processes such as hurricanes and human activities such as fishing and dredging. and J.R. Clark. Fisheries Program Leader The National Marine Sanctuaries Act, the Park System Resources Protection Act, and other legal authorities can often be used to recover damages. To allow accurate measurements of features, it is important that photographs be taken perpendicular to the surface. Regional and interagency networking should be a priority for MPA managers. U.S. National Park Service, Virgin Islands N. P., 89pp. Of State, Washington D.C. 63p. Investment of time and money in mapping is extremely important because it will lay the foundation for developing overall management plans, it will guide future use and protection, and it will allow for detection of change at the ecosystem level. Selected References However, many marine fisheries scientists have called for protection of over 20 percent of total potential fishing area (whether or not in a sanctuary, park or refuge) as the most reasonable approach to ensuring population sustainability. jim_tilmant@nps.gov (e-mail) 1991. Within the EIS, "preferred alternatives,@ as well as other reasonable alternatives, are evaluated. Although at least minimal agency base funding must be available to establish a protected area and initiate management activities, there are usually several potential additional sources of funding available to area managers to support management activities. Outreach is less formal, for example, a story about how a sponge spawns or the latest data showing increased fish populations in a designated marine reserve. These may include discussions with local residents, with commercial operators (dive boat and tour boat operators, commercial fishermen, guides, etc. Generally employees will be more motivated if they are knowledgeable in their area of responsibility and feel they have management support to improve that knowledge. Healthy and resilient coral reefs safeguard against extreme weather, shoreline erosion, and coastal flooding. Marine Preserves / Wilderness Benefits: While often not distinguished, education and outreach activities can have distinctly different messages and concepts and be widely applied for different circumstances. Mapping Fisheries Program Leader Natural stresses can combine with damage from recreational use or shoreline development. By identifying and addressing the combined effects of natural and anthropogenic stresses, managers can better protect coral reefs. Franke. Of State, Washington D.C. 63p. New techniques which have great potential for management include new or improved monitoring methods, e.g. Education and Outreach Training usually increases job effectiveness in the employees’ own resource management specialties as well as in related resource management areas. A periodic "corporate report to the stockholders" is an essential part of that relationship. 10. Development of a "friends group," a trust fund, or a "coral reef stewardship fund" on a local level can often provide additional funding for the MPA's programs. These photographs can also assist in selecting appropriate detailed study sites. An information network for area managers has been established on the Internet for the Caribbean area. Back to list of elements. 1976. New techniques which have great potential for management include new or improved monitoring methods, e.g. Duplication of coral reef protection efforts is not always necessary when coordination of activities, information, and methodologies and sharing of infrastructure, training opportunities, and products will increase efficiency. Knowledge of key spawning habitats and fish aggregation sites should also be incorporated into the design of wilderness boundaries. The 20 percent reference point recommended for complete protection within total potential fishing area is a bare minimum. IUCN workshop on Managing Coastal and Marine Protected Areas, World Congress on National Parks, Bali, Indonesia, Oct. 1982. Coastal Development -increased sedimentation, altered upland runoff and nutrient input to the reef system, loss of juvenile nursery habitat Carr, M.H. Not … In addition, progress toward achieving management objectives for the protected area can be enhanced if the employees are instructed in what the management objectives are, what actions are necessary to achieve these goals, and what role they play in reaching the management objectives. A detailed environmental impact statement (EIS) was prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) during plan development for each of these units and additional EISs are prepared as plans are periodically updated. Training may take many forms and all should be used and encouraged. 11. Duplication of coral reef protection efforts is not always necessary when coordination of activities, information, and methodologies and sharing of infrastructure, training opportunities, and products will increase efficiency. Marine protected area managers should view themselves as public servants and a custodian of public resources. Salvat, B. 1991. For short-term objectives, prepare action plans for the coming year. These reports should come frequently in the form of newsletters or informational updates, periodically when information of significant proportion is obtained (e.g. A National Research Council committee on ecosystem management of sustainable marine fisheries recently noted that this figure provides a Aworthwhile reference point. Maps developed from aerial photographs, when digitized and fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS), can be use to conduct a multitude of assessments of reef resources. Research Political boundaries are not recognized by creatures of the sea, and spawning sites, larval dispersion, pollutant pathways, disease transmission, and many other influences are a function of prevailing currents and winds. The GIS can also be used to organize and store all new spatially oriented information about reefs as it is obtained. Fort Collins, CO 80525 + Appendices. Once armed with this knowledge, MPA managers should move forward with the following basic steps: Training usually increases job effectiveness in the employees’ own resource management specialties as well as in related resource management areas. Minimum equipment and facilities are needed to ensure proper protection of an area and these may include buoys or markers to indicate boundaries; boats of sufficient size to patrol and access the area; dive, monitoring and research equipment necessary to observe, document and evaluate resource conditions; facilities for recreational access and enjoyment; and sufficient boats and safety equipment for surveillance and law enforcement. Marine protected area management plans should be formally reviewed and revised as necessary at a five-year minimum interval. Economic benefits of marine protected areas. Canadian Jrl. The location of reefs can be documented using aerial photography and other remote sensing techniques (see Mapping discussion). However, management plans will be more effective if they contain measurable indicators of success that may be monitored annually to serve as a "barometer" of successful management. Regional and interagency networking should be a priority for MPA managers. Regional networking needs coordination and constant nurturing. 302p. Adequate personnel should be either employed or sought from volunteers for important basic functions. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 43:217-241. Research Marine reserves - A blueprint for protection. Mapping The results from these evaluations should be reported, and management plans must be revised as necessary to achieve goals. Such long-term monitoring should include indicators of coral stress such as frequency of bleaching and occurrence of disease. Marine protected area managers should view themselves as public servants and a custodian of public resources. Dixon, J.A. Research on reefs with the greatest potential benefits for managers includes 1) monitoring (see Monitoring section), 2) experimental research, 3) research on new techniques and technologies, 4) research on the links between human actions and reef degradation, and 5) research on the synergy between natural and human processes which affect reefs. It is often the most entrepreneurial manager that is the most successful. IUCN workshop on Managing Coastal and Marine Protected Areas, World Congress on National Parks, Bali, Indonesia, Oct. 1982. To best accomplish information dissemination it is critical to remember the area=s objectives, consider the target audience, and assess the most effective information tools. Salm, R.V. Each coral reef protected area should have a management plan that is prepared in cooperation with stakeholders and which addresses the elements of this Blueprint. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. More research on the potential of using coral larvae to restock denuded reefs, now showing some promise in the Pacific, may lead to more use of this method in reef restoration. Therefore, every area manager must make public education and outreach one of the major elements in their management program. Networking can afford benefits to management that are far reaching but not always apparent. For example, managers could shift recreational use from a hurricane-damaged site to another reef which escaped storm damage. 10. In the long run, success will require a constantly expansive approach that (a) increasingly addresses the importance of forces outside the MPA boundaries and (b) is flexible enough to eventually become part of ecosystem management on a regional scale. These may include discussions with local residents, with commercial operators (dive boat and tour boat operators, commercial fishermen, guides, etc. Water Resources Division Current attempts to use aerial photos and in-water "hyperspectral" sensors, e.g., to identify specific spectral "signatures" for diseased or dead corals, may expedite reef assessment over large areas. Marine Preserves / Wilderness Benefits: Coral polyps, the animals primarily responsible for building reefs, can take many forms: large reef building colonies, graceful flowing fans, and even small, solitary organisms.Thousands of species of corals have been discovered; some live in warm, shallow, tropical seas and others in the cold, dark depths of the ocean. 35pp. Plan Revision and Reporting Reporting of management results should be considered critical element to gaining and maintaining public support for the marine protected area. Such planktonic larvae may settle to develop hundred of miles from where eggs were released. 1994. Back to list of elements. For example, more research is needed on coral pathogens and on their possible link to sewage, sedimentation, or other factors associated with humans. In evaluating the need for plan revision and management success at five-year intervals, managers should consider bringing in an evaluation team to review the effectiveness of the plan and to recommend any needed revisions of management procedures. 970-225-9965 (fax) 1989. human use and impacts Manual of methods for mapping and monitoring of physical and biological parameters in the coastal zone of the Caribbean.. Florida Institute of Oceanography. Guidelines for the planning and management of marine parks and reserves. UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Technology, Southeast Asia. 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