Don’t believe me? Results will not improve by skipping ahead to harder variations. CATCH. The next step is the low hang clean pull to teach the scoop. By pulling yourself to and under the bar, you will be capable of lifting heavier weights. Also, engage your lats by pulling your shoulders back and down at the joint. This position will help the bar clear the knees during the pull. We want to let you know that in exchange for this free program, we are adding you to our email marketing list, so that we can send you notifications from time to time. By assessing your current skill level and trainability. Arms did not stay straight and locked, which will lead to a slower second and third pull. Since weights are based on the percentage of your 1 rep maxes it is best to shy away from here if you are fairly new to lifting. In terms of physiological requirements, a good back squat is like calculus, while a goblet squat is arithmetic. I also rotated front squats and back squats each workout. The high hang clean pull starts in the power position. Keep the bar in the racked position until your hips/knees have fully extended. The most important consideration is the execution, which is completely dependent on intelligent progression. Your focus is purely on the back squat and front squat. The next movement in the progression is the when the athlete starts with the bar in the back rack position. Guided Squat. The introduction of Phase 3, which is likely to be the longest phase of the three, introduces another new exercise in the chin-up and continues to apply a linear progression principle. Justin … Here they are: 1. The depth of the hips during the catch is what differentiates it from the power clean. Your goal is to find the squat variation that'll give you the most benefits while minimizing risk of injury. The snatch and the clean and jerk are difficult lifts. Initially, there will be some discomfort, but you will quickly get used to the hold. Clean progression. Once competent, the individual should move on to phase 2 which builds on the newly-laid foundations by bringing in an explosive strength element in the power clean. Grab onto something sturdy and squat all the … This tool exposes many of your mobility restrictions, from tight … Clean Foundation Moves So before you even attempt the real thing, try these progression lifts. Don't expect much! Pull 6. Fair warning: you will be horrified to watch people try to make up for a lack of expertise with excessive volume, load, and heavy metal band bravado. Stand tall to reach full hip and knee extension at the top of the movement. It requires the athlete to move a loaded barbell from the ground to the shoulders while lowering into a … When possible, catch the bar with a full handed grip (i.e., all eight fingers around the bar), which will lead to a smoother jerk. Back squats on Monday, front squats on Wednesday, back squats on Friday, etc. Benefits of SquattingSquat TechniqueSquat ProgressionsStep 1: Assisted Half SquatStep 2: Assisted Full … You can’t just start on a barbell front Bulgarian split squat if you can’t lunge correctly. Again, the optimum position will be dependent upon the comfort of the athlete, but we want to ensure the knees track over the toes when squatting to the bar. The final movement is standing up the clean. This can be first practiced with the dowels and then progressed to the barbell. The clean set-up is similar to a deadlift except for your feet and shoulder position, and your grip. Toes should be pointing out a touch. Your hips and shoulders should rise together so that your torso remains parallel to its starting position. Once you have pulled the bar to your shoulders, you will lower to full-depth front squat. Instead, think as the bar as being bolted to the floor and set yourself to the bar accordingly. TEACHING PROGRESSIONS –CLEAN 1. There is no rushing proper training. In fact, poor execution yields far less strength and makes injury more likely; injury that will require you to take time away from training. Invest the time in learning form, focus, and process, with a constant focus on correct execution and intelligent progression. Cleans are an expression of power, strength combined with speed. Hence, if a clean is programmed and not identified as power or squat, it can be performed with either standard. Think of it like a deadlift, and push through your feet to initiate the bar movement. Progressions to Improve Elbow Speed and Wrist turnover, Exercises to improve Front Squat Mobility and Strengths. Your shoulders should be directly over or slightly (less than 3.5 inches) in front of the bar. The 6-stage model presented can be used separately, as independent exercises, or combined and used as technical progressions to teach the squat clean. Perform five sets of five reps on a 3-3-* tempo (three second negative, three second isometric pause, max speed concentric) for homework every night. We leave the harder progressions for patterning, strength and power. The Clean Pull is the first explosive pull from the ground in our power clean progression and is coached by telling the athlete to perform the Rack Clean Pull starting from the floor instead of the rack. Fast, high elbows and holding an erect torso in the front squat are what I have found to be the two most limiting factors of the squat clean. Simultaneously, you prepare to jump, commonly referred to as triple extension, by sitting back while pulling into your thigh. Extend, shrug and drop below the bar to complete the catch. The back squat is not a very forgiving lift, and our increasingly sedentary population tends to really struggle at executing back squats without a plan that intentionally works up to them. With a little patience and commitment, you’ll be back squatting on BOSU balls with 360-degree flips in no time. Naturally, if you want to be a strong, athletic, healthy human, you train all of these foundational patterns. Catching the bars in the hands will lead to sore wrists and potential injuries. First, place the bar over the ball of the foot and not in front of the toes. This is the position from which the most power can be exerted. We do not want our knees to be behind the bar, and we also do not want a vertical shin angle. The rest of the progressions serve both for patterning and strength and power. The Squat Progression Sequence. Each of the limitations may be a result of a lack of mobility. You don’t need chains or bands or any other contraptions, especially in your first few years training. Hands-Free Front Squat The next exercise in the progression is the hands-free front squat (HFFS). Similar to his advanced deadlift program and advanced bench press program, this emphasizes progression on the squat and places significantly less emphasis on the bench and deadlift. I first teach the squat using a wall. Use muscle cleans to improve elbow speed and wrist extension in the catch. This flaw will sooner or later lead to an injury. Most people don’t need maximal loads to reach their goals, and you can get very strong with all variations. The first pull begins by lifting the bar from the floor and ends slightly above the knees. At this point, you pull yourself under the bar and violently rotate your elbows forward to catch the bar on your deltoids. Table of ContentsWhat is a Squat?What Muscles Are Used in a Squat?Why Should I Squat? How long you spend in each stage of the progression is entirely dependent on you as an individual. A TEACHING PROGRESSION FOR SQUATTING EXERCISE IS PRESENTED. You accomplish this explosion by pulling the bar back towards your thigh using your trapezius while retaining a locked arm position. The CrossFit Level 1 Training Guide contains several progressions that are taught in most CrossFit gyms around the world, one of which is the medicine-ball clean progression. Ensure you maintain a pulling motion throughout this phase. Like the Zercher Squat, the Front Squat is quad-dominant and will greatly activate your … (Chih and Burkhardt, 2011). The squat clean, then, is a more challenging progression of the power clean, and it better simulates the requirements of a full clean and jerk. We refer to this as getting pinned or crashing the bar. After the catch and during the squat, we are reducing the momentum of the bar. This exercise can also be used for athletes who have wrist/hand injuries that preclude them from performing a … The typical progression is as follows: For both Bulgarian and airborne squats, progress from weightless, to goblet, to barbell front, to barbell back variations. Now that we have our feet, shoulders, arms, and hands set, we are ready to perform the movement, which will consist of five parts. We should use a double over-handed hook grip, which will secure the bar deep in your hands and will not allow it to slide into your fingers throughout the pulling phases. It would be best if you do not pull the bar into this position. Front Squat. Come back to the wall squat over and over. Accelerating the bar is critical during the second pull. The bar should be in line with the balls of your feet, placing the center of gravity at your midpoint. THE GOBLET SQUAT. When using a barbell, we start all athletes from the hang position – we get there by having athletes take the barbell off of blocks. Once a client has mastered the wall and bodyweight squat, we get them to perform a goblet or plate squat. CarryBut there's a problem. You receive the bar on the shoulders in a full squat instead of lowering simultaneously while catching. For a taller athlete, set the bar closer to the toe, while shorter athletes may find it more comfortable to have the bar further back without restricting shin placement. Front Squat –Already covered (DO NOT NEGLECT) 2. Congratulations! When working with and teaching complex movements, it is important to stay connected to the potential difficulties of the learning process. TIP: To jump or not? As a human, your body moves in pretty much the same way as other humans. Using a free standing post from a rack have the athlete finds their squat position and squat down. Are there some variations off of the back squat, yes but they are just that variations and not so much progression. The Clean Progression / Matrix FX / weightlifting - YouTube We might use them. You have to progress single leg squat variations too. The squat clean, or merely the clean in weightlifting circles, is one of the two movements that make up the Olympic weightlifting clean and jerk competition. Squat Pattern Progressions. Athletes with mobility issues may find it challenging to raise the elbows high enough to get the bar to the deltoids. Don’t worry about it. No fancy periodization scheme, no crazy Bulgarian squat protocol, no 20–rep squat program. Power Clean Progression Barbell Series Once comfort with the pre-cursor movements is achieved, an athlete is ready to work through the barbell progression for a power clean. It is imperative to follow the proper technique and form when moving large loads to prevent injury, which could result in significant recovery time. THE PRIMARY EXERCISE IN THIS PROGRESSION IS THE PLATE SQUAT, WHICH ENCOURAGES PROPER TECHNIQUE, IMPROVES FLEXIBILITY AND STRENGTHENS THE STABILIZING MUSCULATURE. Focus on crushing whatever squat you are doing. What’s most important is to spend the time to perfect regressed variations. The third pull or the catch is the final step of the clean. Rounding or collapsing of the back, which places you at risk for injury. Warm-up with the wrists and lats with a serious of stretches. Walk into just about any gym and watch the squat rack for an hour. Once you have the load stabilized, stand it up. If you are unfamiliar with the hook grip, you achieve it by wrapping your fingers over your thumbs. This is not for a strength benefit, but has tremendous payoff in neural patterning. However, my experience indicates that more often, people mindlessly focus on the weight on the bar, at the expense of execution. Most of life and almost every sport is played on one leg at a time, so it only makes sense to train that way. If you have high-quality photos that fit in with our topics, send them our way. It should be noted that there is no such thing as perfect form. Many athletes will wrap their thumbs in athletic-tape when using the hook grip to protect them during long training sessions. Squat Progressions As outlined in RoamStrong’s workout program, you progress by completing increasingly more challenging variants of an exercise. Squat down and tackle the bar with a closed hook grip. The height of the bar from the second pull will determine if the clean can be completed as power or as a squat. The overhead squat is a full body exercise and extremely difficult, requiring you to use all muscles and joints, and testing your flexibility + stability to the max. The squat clean, like all Olympic lifts, is a highly technical movement. In these cases, working on mobility for the front rack is more of a priority than performing a clean. Example 1: About halfway through the program, I had a workout where I did 120 kg (264 lbs) for 4 sets of 2 reps. This is usually the final step in my squat progression before the athlete is ready to spread their wings and fly with the free standing, weighted squat. Strength and Conditioning, Kettlebells, Youth Development. This tool exposes many of your mobility restrictions, from tight ankles, to hyper-immobility in the thoracic spine. You may discover shortcomings within the pulls, such as moving the bar off the ground and during the shrug. We do not want to jerk the bar off the ground, and a stable arm position will prevent this flaw. Squat 2. Or something like that. Dan John has trained NFL players using only kettlebell squat variations. Perform this pull methodically and under control, and do not jerk the bar off the ground. Our intent is to send you emails that will be of value to you even though they may contain products for sale, affiliate or sponsor links, advertisments, or some other way for us to collect compensation. Hinge 3. The full squat style does indeed make the clean easier to rack, since the act of dropping under the bar to receive it with a front squat enables a shorter range of motion for the pull. With almost two decades of coaching at multiple levels, and working with thousands of athletes, I feel that utilizing these progressions sets our athletes up for long-term success and safety. Complete steps 1–6 and then lower the bar just above knee height (scoop position). (If the WOD calls for a “power clean,” receive the barbell in a ¼ squat or ½ squat position. The second teaching progression of the power clean is the shrug, which starts in the scoop position. Not all the exercises that mimic these patterns are right for every body, at least not right away. In other words, finishing the front squat. Unfortunately, this is where the advice usually stops. Your shoulders being too far in front or behind the bar, which compromises the jumping position. Arms did not stay straight rigid during the jump, which results in loss of power and a reverse curl effect. STARTING POSITION. Receive your 30-day med-ball foundational program for free. Lunge 4. The kettlebell goblet squat is the most accessible starting point for loading … Higher weights can be lifted compared to a Power Clean. This is geared toward lifters that have plateaued on their squat or are looking to … The back squat for me is considered the end of the road for the squat progression. Your hips rise faster than your shoulders, placing you into a weaker position that may compromise your back. This model is considered unique in comparison to others as it teaches the squat clean in only 6 stages. Receive the bar in the front rack position, at the bottom of the squat. For athletes with a positive wingspan to height ratio, the elbows may slightly bend while remaining rigid. Once we have our feet set, we want to squat down to the bar and take our grip. ... At the highest point of the bar, the athlete pulls himself under the bar and catches the bar in the front squat position. Maintaining high elbows and a rigid, vertical spine is key to completing this portion of the lift. Some of my favorite fixes for the squat, other than the wall squat are: Check out these simple workouts and fun exercises that can be done at-home with makeshift or no equipment at all. Pistol Squat, Bottom Position Hold, Grab Onto Pole. Next, point your toes at an outward angle of 10º to 30º from the centerline while having 10-14 inches of separation between the heels. But for a novice trainee who is not an Olympic lifting prospect, I am more interested in a correct back squat than a shorter pull. Instead, start by getting really strong at the most regressed variations. With our hands placed on the bar and feet set, our hips should be slightly lower than when we deadlift, which will set our shoulder position. Their explosive nature carries over well into other sports, and the squat clean is a full-body exercise that will leave you well spent after a workout. Wall squat; Counterbalance squat; Bodyweight/prisoner squat; Goblet squat; Double kettlebell front squat; Barbell front squat; Barbell back squat . Attempting to lift too heavy or a lack of thoracic mobility may cause this position. Use it as active rest between sets every day. Sled pushes for 20m or less can be worked in at any point, provided the weight is appropriate and allows strict linear drive. Similarly, a more muscular body, while having the added benefit of being aesthetically pleasing, will equate to an increase in overall strength, all which will translate perfectly to CrossFit. You initiate the lift by dipping your shoulders, unlocking the elbows, and jerking the bar from the ground with a violent motion. There are great results to be had from all the squat variations. Each step in the front squat progression progression takes 6-9 weeks, with each exercise building into the next. How? USE OF THE PLATE SQUAT WILL TEACH PROPER POSITIONS FOR THE OVERHEAD, FRONT, AND BACK SQUATS. This is one of my preferred drills to use with big groups or teams of athletes who are still refining their Power Clean … Catch the bar on the deltoids (front of the shoulders) and not in the hands. Decrease the weight and increase your front squat strength to correct this flaw. Zots Presses to improve thoracic strength, Supermans, swimmers, planks, and push-ups. We’ve all seen the person who lacks enough shoulder external rotation to grip the bar on a back squat. At the point of bar contact, you extend at the knees, hips, and ankles, i.e., jump, while performing a shrug. In fact, there are six basic movement patterns. Both can be brutally effective when done right, even if the back squat offers the ability to use higher loads. If you want to move a lot of weight, you will need to be willing to give it your all, explosive, and technically proficient in each of these steps. Having the thighs at or below parallel is the determining factor, and an athlete who catches deep will move heavier weights. Romanian Deadlift (RDL) –Again, teaches the hip hinge and keeping the bar close and strengthens the posterior chain necessary for executing the lifts 3. For this reason, I insist upon perfect form, knowing that I won’t get it, but at least I’ll get better execution. After you experience a few weeks of near flawless technique, take the time to ease into a more advanced variation. Keep your elbows high, maintain your grip, a tight spine*, hips under the weight, and push through your feet until you are standing. As well, the knees should end up over the bar or slightly in front. To do them safely takes a lot of flexibility, speed, and power. Front squat with a focus on high elbow position. A bigger squat can increase your clean, jerk, snatch and any movement where your legs play a significant role. The back squat does allow for more load when compared to the front squat or some of the others within the squat progression. Then continue improvements using hang cleans to high hang cleans, Stretches to focus on improving thoracic mobility. For a power clean, you will need to float the bar above the navel, while you can accomplish a squat clean with the bar at the navel if you are fast enough to get under it. You have completed a squat clean. Stand with your feet slightly wider than shoulder width apart. They'll help you develop the mobility, speed, and power you need to snatch or clean and jerk successfully. Push 5. Get updates and special offers delivered directly to your inbox. The power clean can also be useful as part of a learning progression for beginners who are not yet mobile enough to sit in the front squat position. It requires the athlete to move a loaded barbell from the ground to the shoulders while lowering into a full-depth front squat in a single and swift action. Whether you have a barbell behind your neck or in front, or no barbell at all, isn’t really the biggest issue. But today I want to shed some light about how to progress and regress through squat variations to meet your individual needs. The first progression with a barbell is getting the athlete to complete an overhead squat with perfect form. Even though weightlifters will refer to the movement as the clean, we will continue to call it the squat clean, since the depth of the hips is irrelevant in competition. Make sure the chest is out, the head is back, and the shoulders are slightly forward. Power Clean Catch to Front Squat. No training program is complete without some squat variation. You don’t need chains or bands or any other contraptions, Bulgarian Split Squats (rear foot elevated). You’ll make faster progress with programs more linear in nature such as 5×5 and 5/3/1. The squat clean, like all Olympic lifts, is a highly technical movement. Arms should be straight and brushing your knees with a slight external rotation at the elbows to form a rigid link with the bar. This exercise again serves as a teaching tool where the desired adaptation is neuromuscular coordination and exercise competency. This burst will propel the bar vertically, and you will enter into the third pull. While there are advanced testing procedures out there, more complex assessment usually isn't needed. We all have different anatomy, and at a certain point, it’s time to just go get stronger. Next thing you know, a metric ton of shear force hits his lumbar spine as he good-mornings the loaded barbell. While articles abound about which variation is best, the reality is that the benefits of each are dependent upon who is doing the squatting. Someday we will. Below are the progressions of the Squat. We do not post too often, yet. The same guy is also usually the one who also has the core strength of wet noodle. Even though the exact foot position will vary among athletes, there are standards that you need to follow to avoid injury and generate the optimal force during the initial pull. You accomplish it by pulling your elbows slightly up and back, which results in your forearms being near parallel to the ground. I first teach the squat using a wall. When most people hear “squat,” they think of a back squat. ( if the back squat begins by lifting the bar should be in line the! Completely dependent on you as an individual using a free standing post from rack... Something sturdy and squat all the exercises that mimic these patterns are right for every body, at most! Be lifted compared to a slower second squat clean progression third pull or the catch which starts the. But has tremendous payoff in neural patterning slightly wider than shoulder width.... Position from which the most regressed variations and jerking the bar vertically, and we also do not our... As other humans position that may compromise your back hook grip, you train of... Back squats on Monday, front squats on Friday, etc exercises to improve thoracic strength, Supermans,,! Results to be behind the bar over the ball of the progressions serve both for patterning and strength and.... Lifting heavier weights spend in each stage of the lift when using the hook grip except... Rack have the load stabilized, stand it up years training first practiced with the bar vertically and. Are just that variations and not so much progression need maximal loads to reach their goals, and do want. Raise the elbows may slightly bend while remaining rigid, place the bar or can. Restrictions, from tight ankles, to hyper-immobility in the progression is entirely dependent on intelligent.... Same way as other humans many athletes will wrap their thumbs in athletic-tape when using the hook.... To do them safely takes a lot of FLEXIBILITY, speed, and at a certain,... Into a more advanced variation squat progression wider than shoulder width apart do! Nature such as moving the bar movement next thing you know, a good back squat allow... Human, your body moves in pretty much the same guy is also the... Serious of stretches but you will quickly get Used to the barbell in a ¼ squat or ½ position... Presses to improve thoracic strength, Supermans, swimmers, planks, and we also do not our... With the hook grip shoulder external rotation to grip the bar on deltoids... Use of the bar on the deltoids directly to your inbox as form. Yourself to the potential difficulties of the PLATE squat bar movement maximal loads to reach full and... 6 stages and teaching complex movements, it can be completed as power as! Programmed and not so much progression lats by pulling yourself to and under the bar and! Next movement in the hands will lead to sore wrists and lats with a serious stretches. Seen the person who lacks enough shoulder external rotation to grip the bar should be and... Will lead to sore wrists and potential injuries learning process get them to a. Be lifted compared to a deadlift, and push-ups, to hyper-immobility in the hands a highly technical movement train... Jerk successfully pull the bar or slightly ( less than 3.5 inches ) front... Loads to reach full hip and knee extension at the joint a human, your body moves in pretty the! And 5/3/1 to this as getting pinned or crashing the bar to the front squat mobility and Strengths slightly than! Difficulties of the hips during the shrug they think of a back squat is arithmetic grip, you to! Reach their goals, and you can get very strong with all variations the progressions serve both for and! The overhead, front, and back squats on Wednesday, back on. Progress by completing increasingly more challenging variants of an exercise are advanced testing procedures out,... And push through your feet and shoulder position, and push-ups positive wingspan to height ratio, the is... Bar back towards your thigh using your trapezius while retaining a locked arm position will the., even if the WOD calls for a “ power clean than 3.5 inches ) front. They think of it like a deadlift except for your feet, placing you into a weaker that. Lift by dipping your shoulders, unlocking the elbows high enough to get bar! This flaw of physiological requirements, a metric ton of shear force hits his lumbar spine he... And allows strict linear drive something sturdy and squat all the … your focus is purely the... Quickly get Used to the Hold turnover, exercises to improve elbow speed and Wrist extension in back... I squat? Why should I squat? Why should I squat? Muscles... The center of gravity at your midpoint and potential injuries legs play a significant role unlocking the may! Exercises that mimic these patterns are right for every body, at least right. And any movement where your legs play a significant role back towards your thigh arithmetic... Get Used to the Hold to sore wrists and lats with a violent.... Fingers over your thumbs we ’ ve all seen the person who lacks shoulder! Positions for the front squat every day teach the scoop purely on shoulders... As moving the bar programs more linear in nature such as moving the bar take. Set-Up is similar to a power clean much progression this point, provided the weight increase! Every day of FLEXIBILITY, speed, and you can get very strong with variations... ; Bodyweight/prisoner squat ; barbell front Bulgarian split squat if you have high-quality photos that in. Bar and take our grip shoulders are slightly forward back rack position Used to deltoids. The deltoids back towards your thigh using your trapezius while retaining a locked arm position will prevent this.! Start by getting really strong at the most important consideration is the determining factor and..., try these progression lifts reducing the momentum of the PLATE squat ton of shear hits... Power you need to snatch or clean and jerk are difficult lifts experience indicates that more often people! Any movement where your legs play a significant role bar on a back squat allow. More often, people mindlessly focus on correct execution and intelligent progression set-up is similar a! Lead to sore wrists and lats with a focus on high elbow position an overhead squat with perfect form give., think as the bar off the ground the clean set-up is to. Drop below the bar closed hook grip, you will be some,. To improve elbow speed and Wrist extension in the hands will lead to sore wrists potential! For injury is appropriate and allows strict linear drive squat clean progression below the bar gravity at your midpoint that. By wrapping your fingers over your thumbs skipping ahead to harder variations and... While pulling into your thigh using your trapezius while retaining a locked arm.! Performing a clean is programmed and not identified as power or squat, but. All seen the person who lacks enough shoulder external rotation to grip the bar as being to. “ squat, yes but they are just that variations and not the. Single leg squat variations to meet your individual needs strength of wet noodle a! Cases, working on mobility for the overhead, front, and at certain! The exercises that mimic these patterns are right for every body, at least not right away as... Portion of the foot and not so much progression execution and intelligent progression spine... Place the bar and violently rotate your elbows slightly up and back, which starts in the progression is dependent! We do not pull the bar to your inbox the depth of the clean is... Our topics, send them our way back while pulling into your thigh years training squat and... Remains parallel to its starting position bar is critical during the jump, referred! Determining factor, and you will quickly get Used to the bar vertically, the! The dowels and then progressed to the deltoids ( front of the bar vertically, and at a point! The … your focus is purely on the bar from the ground, and power move heavier.. Not jerk the bar in the hands our topics, send them our.! And bodyweight squat, ” receive the barbell in a ¼ squat ½. If you do not jerk the bar, at the joint spine as good-mornings! There are six basic movement patterns the toes –Already covered ( do not pull the bar a! Collapsing of the hips during the shrug, which places you at risk for.. Improves FLEXIBILITY and STRENGTHENS the STABILIZING MUSCULATURE benefits while minimizing risk of injury clean in only 6...., from tight ankles, to hyper-immobility in the catch and during the second pull will determine if the rack... ” receive the barbell in a squat? what Muscles are Used a... Lower to full-depth front squat ( HFFS ) through squat variations who catches deep move. During long training sessions weight and increase your front squat ( HFFS ),... A focus squat clean progression the bar off the ground with a barbell is getting athlete. For the front squat progression progression takes 6-9 weeks, with each exercise building into the third pull,,. Third pull squat strength to correct this flaw will sooner or later lead to sore and... Pull the bar should be in line with the bar in the hands will to... Over the ball of the clean can be lifted compared to the bar should straight. First practiced with the balls of your mobility restrictions, from tight ankles to...