Check all that apply. increasing; compression; decrease; increase, as the air parcel descends, it is sinking, so atmospheric pressure is _________, which has an effect of gas __________, a ________ in volume, and an _______ in pressure and temperature, rate in which the air is not saturated; describes the rate of cooling with altitude of an unsaturated air parcel, it has a temp above the dew point which means condensation has NOT occurred, and it doesn't have 100% relative humidity, decreases with temperature; a rising parcel of cooling air without condensation, cools at the ___ _______ ____ _____ of -5.5° F per 1000 ft. in the wet lapse rate, once the air has reached the dew point and become saturated, that is the ____ _______. An air-mass thunderstorm, also called an "ordinary", "single cell", or "garden variety" thunderstorm, is a thunderstorm that is generally weak and usually not severe. Which descriptions refer to cirrus clouds? It fills lakes and wetlands, flows into rivers and oceans, and recharges underground water reserves. Even though oxygen is not a heat-trapping greenhouse gas, its concentration in our atmosphere … If dry air rises, it cools at a rate of 1°C/100 m. This is the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Atmospheric rivers are relatively long, narrow regions in the atmosphere – like rivers in the sky – that transport most of the water vapor outside of the tropics. • Water can also achieve solid and liquid phases on Earth – Temperature and pressure • Saturation – The maximum amount of water that can exist in the atmosphere as a vapor. The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a global scale tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the Equator, flowing poleward at a height of 10 to 15 kilometers above the earth's surface, descending in the subtropics, and then returning equatorward near the surface. Along with evaporation and condensation, precipitation is one of the three major parts of the global water cycle.. Precipitation forms in the clouds when water vapor condenses into bigger and bigger droplets of water. in the orographic uplifting mechanism, on the right side, you have a descending ____ _____ parcel of air that warms, expands, and there is a rain shadow. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 1. Chapter Overview. List the basics of the different cloud types and what they indicate about current and future weather. Climate models suggest an increase in global average annual precipitation during the 21st 11.3 Moisture in the Atmosphere Flashcards | Quizlet Start studying Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation. A small amount of a liquid (such as water) that makes something wet or moist Wetness caused by water; "drops of wet gleamed on the window" 3. the second change in relative humidity... temperature of an air mass at which the air holds its full capacity of water vapor. Check all that apply. 2. Below −40 °C (−40 °F) water vapour can solidify without the presence of a nucleus. Explain how the different types of precipitation form. Where do clouds form? Check all that apply. measures the ACTUAL quantity of water vapor in a parcel of air; is used to describe the water vapor of large air masses; is expressed as (g/kg) = grams of water vapor per kilogram of air. A low-pressure system, also called a depression, is an area where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of the area surrounding it. changes in precipitation and atmospheric moisture. a small, but very intense low pressure system vortex that has high wind speeds, powerful highly complex storms forming warm moist air along the cooler dryer air, the Rocky mountains, the Appalachians. The clouds, temperature, precipitation, winds and storms that you and your students observe are dependent on interactions between global systems and your local conditions such as geography, latitude, moisture levels and solar energy absorption. water exists in the _________ in the form of water vapor, clouds, precipitation and fog, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, humidity is dependent on _____ _________; the amount of water that the air can hold depends on the ____ _________. 1. Which statements accurately describe humidity? 2. b. a form of precipitation induced when warm, moist air is heated at the ground surface, rises, cools, and condenses to form water droplets, raindrops, and eventually rainfall; latent heat release, and energy increases updraft, unequal heating of the surface causes an air parcel to become warmer and less dense in surrounding air; because it is less dense, the warm air parcel moves upwards, it cools as it rises, when it is cool to the dew point temp, clouds form, latent heat is released = an increase in energy which increases the updraft; with that condensation cumulonimbus or cumulus clouds are formed, with showers occurring, these are very intense, and are associated with massive cumulonimbus clouds, In convectional thunderstorms, you have a ______ _________ air moving rapidly _____, and that creates a corresponding downdraft that can produce heavy rain and hail, updrafts and downdrafts can cause positive and negative charges to accumulate in different parts of a cloud and the transference of those + and - charges results in _______, _______ is the expansion of the air as the + and - charges are exchanged, Thunderstorms are associated with _________, they are occasional down drafts that are so intense that when they reach the ground, they flow out in all directions; are known to cause plane crashes, ________ occur in association with thunderstorms that develop a lot of cold fronts like mid latitude regions, a _______ appears as a dark funnel cloud typically hanging down from a cumulonimbus cloud. Atmospheric physics theory dating back to Arrhenius (1895) and Callendar (1938), respectively, have pointed out how relatively small contributions of CO2 can warm the atmosphere… In adiabatic processes, energy can be used to do the work of ________ or can be used to ______ the temperature of the air parcel. This layer contains most of Earth’s clouds and is the location where weather primarily occurs. Check all that apply. Atmosphere - Atmosphere - Troposphere: The lowest portion of the atmosphere is the troposphere, a layer where temperature generally decreases with height. Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, December 12 from 3–4 PM PST, three states of water, hydrosphere, hydrologic cycle, humidity, adiabatic process, clouds, precipitation, air quality, solid = ____; liquid =_____; gas = ______ ______, Latent heat is ______ in the processes of deposition, condensation and freezing, Latent heat is _______ in the processes of melting, evaporation, and sublimation, energy which is drawn in from the surroundings and stored within the water molecules, the change of state of a substance from a gas to a solid, process of change of matter in the gaseous state to the liquid or solid state, change from liquid state to solid state, accompanied by the release of latent heat, becoming sensible heat, change from solid state to liquid state, accompanied by absorption of sensible heat to become latent heat, process in which water in a liquid or solid state passes into the vapor state, process for the change of ice into water vapor, the realm of water in all its forms, and the flows of water among ocean, land, and atmosphere, __.__% of the hydrosphere consists of ocean salt water and the remaining __.__% is freshwater, the next largest reservoir is fresh water, that is stored as ice sheets and mountain glaciers, which accounts for __.____% of total global water, Groundwater makes up __.____% of the hydrosphere, only a small quantity of water is held as vapor/cloud water droplets in the atmosphere, and that is just __._____% of the hydrosphere, the flow of water vapor from _____ tropical oceans to _____ regions provides a global flow of heat from low to high altitudes, this cycle describes how liquid water and water vapor move back and forth between the ocean, water from the oceans and from land surfaces _______, changing state from liquid to vapor and entering the atmosphere, In the hydrologic cycle, the total evaporation is about ___ times greater over oceans than land. In stable conditions, the vertical movement of air will be smooth and is not likely to cause deep convection like thunderstorms. Related terms: General Circulation Model Which are forms of frozen water? measures water vapor in the air expressed as the percentage of the maximum amount of water vapor that can be held at the given present air temperature. Chapter 13. The system stays balanced because water runs off the land and returns to the ocean. The upward motion of air can lead to the formation of clouds and precipitation if there is sufficient moisture to reach condensation as the air cools while moving up. (Clarification statement: The water cycle should include evaporation, condensation, precipitation, transpiration, infiltration, groundwater, and runoff.) refers to the way that water moves within the hydrologic cycle and the relationship between evaporation, precipitation, and runoff. The Hydrosphere `Hydrosphere – water in the earth-atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans) 99.5% Subsurface Water (soil, groundwater) 0.5% Surface Water (rivers, freshwater lakes) 0.02% Atmosphere 0.0001% `If all land were flat, the oceans would cover it to a depth of 3 km `If all atmospheric water were precipitated, it would cover Atmospheric rivers are narrow regions in the atmosphere that transport much of the moisture from the tropics to northern latitudes. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation 2. an unwanted substance injected into the atmosphere from the Earth's surface by either natural or human activities, the most common ___ ________ is carbon monoxide, followed by particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (evaporated gasoline, dry-cleaning fluids, completely combusted fossil fuels), nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia, tiny particles present in the atmosphere, so small and light that the slightest movements of air keep them aloft, solid and liquid particles capable of being suspended for long periods in the atmosphere, mixture of aerosols and chemical pollutants in the lower atmosphere, usually found over urban areas, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and ozone, a condition in which the temperature of the air increases with altitude, atmospheric condition in which temperature near the ground increases, rather than decreases, with elevation; heavy smog or highly toxic fog can develop, condition in which a _____-_____ layer of warm air overlies a layer of cooler air, reversing the normal trend of cooling with altitude; pollutants accumulate in the cool air layer and produce smog, rainwater having an abnormally low pH, between 2 and 5, as a result of air pollution by sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, Stable air has a temperature profile that ________ with altitude but at a slow rate. ; as a solid, liquid or gas of the amount of moisture in the atmosphere, providing moisture. 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