This section includes a list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood. A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia.A complete blood count test measures several components and features of your blood, including: 1. MCV: Mean cell volume. List of most popular Hematology terms updated in September 2020. White blood cells protect the body from infection. which has not been extruded is visualized. increased concentration of blood cells … B lymphocytes make antibodies, which are proteins that specifically target bacteria, viruses, and other foreign materials. This rare disease results from abnormal platelet-endothelial cell interactions. Fissure. The platelet count and plasma clotting tests (prothombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time) may be used to evaluate bleeding and clotting disorders. Pancytopenia: Decreased numbers of all cell lines. Hematologist - A medical term referring to a Blood specialist. Loss of the skin surface due to scratching or injury. Polychromasia: On Wright's stain of peripheral blood, newly released red cells have a blue-purplish color from staining of their "RNA". A process in which blood is temporarily withdrawn from a donor, one or more components are removed (plasma, etc), and the rest of the blood is reinfused back into the donor. In general, an increased number of band forms are frequently seen in infections. A B; ABG: Arterial Blood Gas: ABO Blood Group: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of antigens known as A and B. absorb: To suck up, as through pores. CD34 positive cells are capable of reconstituting hematopoiesis. Uncover details on the next hematology test now. Philadelphia chromosome: A 9:22 chromosome translocation which is found in chronic myelogenous leukemia. The results of a CBC may diagnose conditions like anemia, infection, and other disorders. These are the cells which can reconstitute hematopoiesis. The liquid component of blood is called plasma, a mixture of water, sugar, fat, protein, and salts. T lymphocytes help regulate the function of other immune cells and directly attack various infected cells and tumors. Anisocytosis: Unequal size of red cells. Each neutrophil lives less than a day, so your bone marrow must constantly make new neutrophils to maintain protection against infection. Hematology-oncology: The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood diseases (hematology) and cancer (oncology) and research into them. [ he″mah-tol´o-je] the branch of medical science dealing with the blood and blood-forming tissues, including morphology, physiology, and pathology. Spherocyte: A red cell which is shaped like a sphere rather than the usual biconcave disk. Macrocytosis: Large red cells. One hundred cells are counted, and the percent of reticulum–containing cells is the reticulocyte count. a blood disease of fetuses and newborn infants caused by the mother's anti-Rh+ antibodies agglutinating or bursting the red cells of her infant's Rh+ blood. Infarct. Blood is a specialized body fluid. ... Red skin due to increased blood supply. Stem cells from all three sources may be used to treat a variety of diseases, including leukemia, lymphoma, bone marrow failure, and various immune disorders. Red blood cells, which carry oxygen 2. This is the standard stain for peripheral blood smears. Glossary of terms. Increased numbers of bands appear in infections. MCH: Mean cell hemoglobin. Howell–Jolly bodies: A round, blue staining inclusion seen in red cells. Similar significance to an increased reticulocyte count. Hypersegmentation is typically seen in megaloblastic disorders. In conditions in which positively charged proteins are present in excess (multiple myeloma, acute infection, inflammation, etc. Unlike many other cells, red blood cells have no nucleus and can easily change shape, helping them fit through the various blood vessels in your body. collection of blood outside of blood vessel - bruise. As this cross-linked fibrin is broken down, crosslinked D fragments of fibrin are generated — the D–dimer. Doctors who specialize in hematology (hematologists) are leading the many advances being made in the treatment and prevention of blood diseases. Blood clotting, also known as coagulation performs the vital task of preventing excessive blood loss in the event of injury. For clarification on blood test abbreviations other than those listed above just ask your medical professional. TTP: Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura. WBC: White blood cell count Wright's stain: You've heard of the Gram stain for bacteria? hemoconcentration. Red cell volume is measured in femtoliters, fl, (10–15 liters). Hypersegmentation: A descriptive term referring to the number of segments in a neutrophil nucleus. If you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are a few other resources that may be of some help: Articles From Hematology, the ASH Education Program Book. The main difference between hematology and oncology is that hematology is the study of the diseases related to blood, whereas oncology is the study of cancer. The red blood cell survives on average only 120 days. Lab studies include prolonged PT, prolonged PTT, decreased platelets, and elevated D–dimer. Rouleaux: This refers to red cells stacking up like coins on peripheral blood smear. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh … HematologyOutlines - Hematology is the study of blood, blood-forming (hematopoietic) organs, and neoplastic/non-neoplastic blood disorders. Hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells 4. The iron is released from transferrin and the transferrin molecule is recycled. Systolic Blood Pressure: the highest force of blood against the walls of the artery when the heart contracts or squeezes blood into the blood vessels. Megaloblastic: A descriptive term in which large oval-shaped red cells (macro–ovalocytes) and hypersegmented neutrophils can be found in the peripheral blood. Hematology: The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the blood and bone marrow as well as of the immunologic, hemostatic (blood clotting) and vascular systems. One cannot "catch" Hemochromatosis. Named after the shape of the nucleus. Lots of these cells on smear suggest increased red cell production. Precipitating factors include sepsis, obstetric complications, metastatic cancer, etc. These stem cells can be found circulating in the blood and bone marrow in people of all ages, as well as in the umbilical cords of newborn babies. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A complete blood count (CBC) test gives your doctor important information about the types and numbers of cells in your blood, especially the red blood cells and their percentage (hematocrit) or protein content (hemoglobin), white blood cells, and platelets. Hemolysis: This term refers to processes which shorten red cell life span. Blood chemistry tests are used to diagnose conditions, monitor ongoing treatment, and measure the function of organs like the thyroid, liver, and kidneys. The platelets stick to small vessel walls leading to a microangiopathic hemolytic process. These represent cells which are recently released from the marrow, and it is expected that as they mature that the reticulum will disappear. Poikilocytosis: Altered shape of cells. This translocation artificially splices two genes together. Dermatology Glossary of Terms A list of the most commonly used key terms and phrases in dermatology. This inclusion is made of nuclear remnants which have not been removed as usual by the spleen. Transferrin is the predominant iron binding protein in blood and thus the TIBC (total iron binding capacity) essentially measures transferrin. The College of American Pathologists 2019 Hematology, Clinical Microscopy, and Body Fluids Glossary 4 Blood Cell Identification The segmented neutrophil is the predominant blood leukocyte. Therefore, hematologists study the properties of blood, while oncologists focus on cancer, which affects different body parts. Microangiopathic: A descriptive term describing mechanically–disrupted red cells. Surgical procedure. Hypochromia: Decreased amount of hemoglobin in red cells. If you are interested in learning more about a particular blood disease, we encourage you to share and discuss these articles with your doctor. A group of potentially life-threatening disorders resulting from insufficient blood flow to the heart caused by the narrowing or blockage of one or more blood vessels to the heart; the conditions included in this group range from unstable angina to heart attack and are usually characterized by chest pain, upper body discomfort with pain in one or both arms, shoulders, stomach or jaw, shortness of breath, nausea, … Arteriole: A small branch of an artery that leads to a capillary. This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymologies.Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary.There are a few general rules about how they combine. List page number 4 2021 L Street NW, Suite 900,Washington, DC 20036, Phone 202-776-0544Toll Free 866-828-1231Fax 202-776-0545, Copyright © 2020 by American Society of Hematology, Support Opportunities|Privacy Policy|Terms of Service|Contact Us, Helping hematologists conquer blood diseases worldwide, transporting oxygen and nutrients to the lungs and tissues, forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss, carrying cells and antibodies that fight infection, bringing waste products to the kidneys and liver, which filter and clean the blood. Hemat/o, hematoma. Here is a glossary of terms and definitions related to heart disease:. Megakaryocyte: The polyploid bone marrow precursor of platelets. Artery: Blood vessel carrying oxygen-ruch blood away from the heart. Hemochromatosis (HH) - A hereditary disorder that causes your body tissues to absorb and store too much iron. CBC: Complete blood count. Conversely, lower than normal counts can lead to extensive bleeding. A basal rate is measured in units per hour. Hematology is the science or study of blood, blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. Ablation: The removal or destruction of tissue. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All . The main job of the plasma is to transport blood cells throughout your body along with nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins, chemical messengers such as hormones, and proteins that help maintain the body's fluid balance. This results from defects in DNA synthesis which in turn are usually caused by folate or vitamin B12 deficiency. Includes red cell number and size, white blood cell and platelet numbers. This finding suggests mechanical disruption of the red cell which may be seen in DIC, TTP, and malfunctioning heart valve. Your doctor may also perform a blood smear, which is a way of looking at your blood cells under the microscope. Hematology definition, the study of the nature, function, and diseases of the blood and of blood-forming organs. D–dimer: When the coagulation cascade is activated, fibrin is ultimately generated. This cell accumulates in the bone marrow and blood in acute leukemia. ), the negative charge is cancelled and red cells stack up. Phlebotomy Glossary of Terms. Because of the nature of blood, the science of hematology profoundly affects the understanding of many diseases. This results in the formation of a fibrin clot, which covers the wound and prevents blood from leaking out. Transferrin: An iron carrying protein which binds to a specific transferrin receptor leading to internalization of transferrin with iron. Bolus A quick dose of insulin that is delivered to cover food consumed or elevated blood glucose. The percentage of whole blood volume that is made up of red blood cells is called the hematocrit and is a common measure of red blood cell levels. Sickle cell: When sickle hemoglobin is deoxygenated, it polymerizes and forms a gel. Definitions and terms. Expressed as grams of hemoglobin per deciliter of red cells. Serious cases are treated by blood replacement. 1. Thus, increased levels of D–dimer signify activation of the coagulation system and the fibrinolytic system. Many people have undergone blood tests or donated blood, but hematology - the study of blood - encompasses much more than this. They are much fewer in number than red blood cells, accounting for about 1 percent of your blood. hematoma. It has four main components: plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. However, clotting can sometimes fail to occur, this is known as haemophilia. The classic diagnostic pentad includes thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic anemia, fever, CNS symptoms, and renal insufficiency. Transfusion of neutrophils is generally not effective since they do not remain in the body for very long. Variations in the size or shape of these cells may suggest a blood disorder. A blood enzyme test can be a vital diagnostic tool during a medical emergency. Blood is basic to almost all the body's functions, and a blood test can reveal more about your physical condition than almost any other kind of examination, so hematology is an important medical specialty, … While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, patients interested in viewing an access-controlled article inBlood  may obtain a copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood  Publishing Office. C. Cannula Blasts: The earliest committed marrow precursor of red and white blood cells. In the medical field, hematology includes the treatment of blood disorders and malignancies, including types of hemophilia, leukemia, lymphoma, and sickle-cell anemia. DIC: Disseminated intravascular coagulation. About 7 to 8 percent of your total body weight is blood. The other major type of white blood cell is a lymphocyte. Anisocytosis: Unequal size of red cells. This may occur by mechanical disruption, antibody–mediated destruction, cytoskeletal defects, and red cell enzyme deficits. There are two main populations of these cells. SearchBlood, the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. Bands: The stage of neutrophil maturation just before full maturation. This picture suggests an infiltrative (myelophthisic) process in the bone marrow. Red cells contain a special protein called hemoglobin, which helps carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and then returns carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs so it can be exhaled. The shape of a red blood cell is a biconcave disk with a flattened center - in other words, both faces of the disc have shallow bowl-like indentations (a red blood cell looks like a donut). This is not maturation arrest as seen in leukemia but rather "sick" appearing precursors usually associated with decreased numbers of blood cells produced, and those cells are commonly functionally defective. Tools. Blood Clotting. Known for their bright red color, red cells are the most abundant cell in the blood, accounting for about 40 to 45 percent of its volume. The Blood Bank Glossary is a great place to find the definition of any weird term that you heard a blood banker use in a lecture (or everyday conversation!) Fibrin also forms the initial scaffolding upon which new tissue forms, thus promoting healing. Hematopoiesis (Hemopoiesis) - The process of formation, development, and differentiation of the formed elements of whole Blood. The American Society of Hematology (ASH) Education Book, updated yearly by experts in the field, is a collection of articles about the current treatment options available to patients. Lots of terms are thrown around hematologic testing (and clinical pathology in general) and some terms mean different things, depending on the context in which they are applied. This is the removal of a small section of the tumour, the sample will be analysed by a histopathologist in order to establish a precise diagnosis. A split, crack, erosion, or narrow ulceration. Unlike red and white blood cells, platelets are not actually cells but rather small fragments of cells. Reflected in increased red cell distribution width (RDW). Bone marrow shows megaloblasts — red cell precursors in which the nucleus does not mature as it is supposed to. Blasts: A disruption of an electric pathway in the heart. Blood, localized mass of blood confined to an organ, tissue, or space, caused by a break in a blood vessel. White blood cells, which fight infection 3. Microcytosis: Small red cells. The articles are categorized here by disease type. Start over; Terminology utilized in phlebotomy. Leakage of blood is prevented by the blood cells sticking to the wound. size of needle. acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) Left shift: A descriptive term referring to increased numbers of early neutrophil series cells in peripheral blood. A slow continuous delivery of insulin, which keeps blood glucose level stable between meals and during sleep. BLOODBOOK.COM AND THE MEDICAL COMMUNITY IN GENERAL USES ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS. The most commonly ordered laboratory test in the hospital. This may be a needle biopsy, where a very fine needle is used to take a tiny sample of the tumour. Blood tests are one of a doctor's basic tools to check your health or test for certain conditions, illnesses, and abnormalities. Occasionally a surgeon may remove the whole t… Production of red blood cells is controlled by erythropoietin, a hormone produced primarily by the kidneys. Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. It’s a word you’d hear at the hospital or doctor’s office, or if you’re having blood work done. Hematopoietic stem cells are capable of transforming into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Normal count is ~1 %. Usually associated with microcytosis and can be seen in iron deficiency, and thalassemia. Glossary of Hematology Terms. Fibrin is cross–linked to form a mesh to stop bleeding. BLOOD DICTIONARY AND GLOSSARY OF BLOOD WORDS AND TERMS. adj., adj hematolog´ic. This condition is just like it sounds and results in depletion of coagulation factors and platelets. Excoriation. Blood has many different functions, including: The blood that runs through the veins, arteries, and capillaries is known as whole blood, a mixture of about 55 percent plasma and 45 percent blood cells. Hematology and oncology are two branches of medicine that are related to blood cancers. Can be any shape. Reticulocyte: When red cells are stained with methylene blue, any reticulum (endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, nuclei, etc.) The finding of microcytosis shortens your differential for anemia to iron deficiency, thalassemia, and the anemia of chronic disease. Somehow, some ferritin gets out of cells into serum and serum ferritin levels usually reflect tissue levels of stored iron. CD34: This refers to an antigen expressed on the surface of hematopoietic stem cells. DIC is not by itself a diagnosis. D–dimer levels are markedly elevated in DIC. Red, formation of red blood cells (formation/production) Hem/o, hemophilia. The presence of H–J bodies signifies a lack of splenic function. 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