2 minutes Developmental psychologists who adopt the information processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child's mind. We can only process one piece of information at a time. The PRP is the lull in time between finishing processing stimuli 1, before processing and making a decision on stimuli 2. If the stimulus is expected then the reaction is quicker than if it is unexpected. With integrated tasks and exam questions. Instructions • Use black ink or black ball-point pen. This is known as spatial anticipation. With more stimuli, the decision-making process slows down. A Level PE - Biomechanic Principles & Stability: Newton’s Law’s of Motion: ... Attribution theory. Feedback tells performers how well they performed. AQA A Level Physical Education - New Specification. The Levels of Processing model, created by Fergus I. M. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart in 1972, describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. When we are performing a skill, many decisions must be made. [8 marks] Marks for this question: AO1 = 2, AO2 = 3 and AO3 = 3 . Home Skill acquisition Psych Anatomy and physiology Exercise physiology ... Information processing has not been taken out of the specification, however, there is no great emphasis on the model, more to do with attention, and selective attention. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Specimen 2018 Morning Time allowed: 2 hours . A-level PHYSICAL EDUCATION Paper 1 Factors affecting participation in physical activity and sport . It is a vital component of the information processing model and can focus on knowledge of results or … Information Processing Model. Depth of processing falls on a shallow to deep continuum. A level PE Info processing, memory and reaction time 1. The next image demonstrates what happens when feedback is also incorporated as occurs in the Closed Loop Theory. A Well-illustrated Overview on the Information Processing Theory. A level PE Info Processing 2013 1. DESCRIBE THE BASIC MODEL OF INFORMATION (2 marks) The basic model of information processing is based on four stages: input, decision making, output and feedback. The model contains four parts that are linked together in a 'learning loop'. This importance can be seen in the way memory links with other processes in the information processing model. Use of memory and different memory stores. The levels of processing model (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last. When we are performing a skill, many decisions must be made. ». The information processing model is one method that can be used to consider how learning takes place. Just like a computer, the human mind takes in information, organizes and stores it to be retrieved at a later time. Also covered are Hicks Law, factors affecting Reaction time, Single Channel Hypothesis and Psychological Refractory Period. The section will look at various information processing models from the basic model to Whitings model. Abilities Your ability is the skills and qualities which make it possible for you to achieve a task. An information processing model Input This is the information sent by … The stronger the stimulus is, the faster the reaction will be. They see that the ball is arriving on their forehand side and they start to decide upon the appropriate response (S1). Information processing theory describes how information is received, processed, stored and then retrieved in the human brain. balance needed in a tennis serve or any other specific movement, e.g. Information Processing PowerPoint and notes. Without memory, information processing, and skill learning are not possible. These cookies do not store any personal information. The Single Channel Hypothesis states that once a stimulus has been recognised and is in the process of being dealt with any secondary stimuli must wait until the first has been dealt with before it can be processed. Response (or reaction) time, is a persons ability to take in and process information to make a decision and then put this into action. Information Processing. )+ Movement Time (The time it takes to complete a movement.). The diagram below shows the process involved in making such decisions. These are stable and enduring characteristics which are genetic and can be either completely perceptual, completely motor or a … Ability & Skill Read More » Home Specification 2.1 Skill Acquistion 3.2 Contemporary issues in physical actvity and sport ... Atkinson and Shiffren's model multi-store memory model: Craik and Lockhart's level of processing model: Powered by Create your own unique website with … A Level PE Information Processing 2. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) created a model to link information processes to memory, which was known as ‘The multi-store model and memory’. A Level PE. From an attacker’s point of view, the more stimuli you can present to an attacker, the easier it should be to beat them. Information Processing describes how performers: Input: (stimulus identification) Information is gathered from the environment/display, and a stimulus is recognised, Decision Making: (Response Selection) Gathered information is used to create a motor programme/muscle movements, Output: (Response Programme) The muscle movement produced in response to the stimulus, Feedback: Information about the performance is received - can be internal/external, These allow us to have a better understanding of how people process information in sport, These are only models (psychologists ideas of what might happen as we perform and learn), The most popular models were made by Whiting, Welford and Schmidt, Involves info from the environment which enters the brain via the sense organs. Males tend to have a faster response time than females, although this deteriorates more rapidly in old age. Factors affecting the nature and development of elite performance - A2 physical education AQA. Response time = Reaction Time (The time between the onset of a stimulus and the initiation of a response. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. • Fill in the boxes at the bottom of this page. Whilst the ball is still in flight, it clips the net (S2). (Equivalent to UK A Level Physical Education). © Copyright Get Revising 2020 all rights reserved. The primary application of the levels of processing framework was to verbal learning settings (i.e., memorization of word lists); however, it has been applied to reading and language learning (e.g., Cermak & Craik, 1979). He saw basic information processing as having 3 main stages: Input of information (perception) Throughput (decision making) Output (response) Try to present the 2nd stimuli as close to the first as possible for maximum effect. A Level PE- Information Processing (I.P): The way the human brain processes information was first applied to skill acquisition in 1968 (Welford), a psychologist. Whether learning new skills or performing previously learned skills, the brain controls all thoughts and actions and will use information received from the sensory organs and information stored in the memory to decide the action to be taken. OCR A Level PE. A-LEVEL PHYSICAL EDUCATION – 7582/1 7 05 In relation to energy transfer, evaluate the use of altitude training to increase performance in a 1500m running event. 806 8067 22, Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE, Sport and society and the role of technology in physical activity and sport, See all Acquiring movement skills resources », Key Advice from Warwick Alumnus: Investment Banking to PE », Physical education OCR 24th may 2016 AS CREATE UNOFFICAL MARK SCHEME », Stay at uni or go back to permanent employment? Information processing theory is the approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. 3) Apply one information processing model to your chosen PPP activity. 3. the feel of the ball in your hands or kicking a ball with the inside of your foot, Kinaesthesis -> the inner sense of the muscles which give automatic information about the position of joints and tension in the muscles, Occurs in the brain and describes the process whereby the sensory input is given meaning, Interprets information and identifies the elements that are important, This recognition and interpretation relies on pervious experience and the memory of that experience to help make a decision of what to do in response to the stimuli, Perception involves the brain comparing present info with past info stored in the LTM, Before the decision is made (in how to react) all the info from the display has to be simplified or there would be too much for the brain to cope with at once, All the info is simplified into relevant and irrelevant cues through the process of selective attention. Understand and apply selective attention • Subject matter that had a higher than average level of unfamiliar facts and for which students would have little … It would also beneficial if you could read the section in your text books about ‘memory’. The use of the computer as a tool for thinking how the human mind … The model is a simple process that a performer carries out when deciding what to do. An example of this is a tennis player waiting at the baseline for a return shot. An extended, more detailed example of this is shown below. The section will look at various information processing models from the basic model to Whitings model. Start studying AQA A Level PE Information Processing. The section will look at various information processing models from the basic model to Whitings model. Information Processing Describe how information is transmitted through the peripheral and central nervous system. The time taken to forget about the first stimuli and then process and respond to S2 is the PRP. This is because it is easier to focus the selective attention on strong stimuli. © Copyright Get Revising 2020 all rights reserved. Information Processing Describe how information is transmitted through the peripheral and central nervous system. The Information Processing Model is a framework used by cognitive psychologists to explain and describe mental processes. 4.5 / 5 based on 5 ratings. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. By the end of the lesson: ALL: identify the key features of the perceptual mechanism; associate findings with the information processing model MOST: explain, using examples, selective attention and the DCR process SOME: analyse the features of the perceptual mechanism and The model likens the thinking process to how a computer works. Skill Acquisition - Year 2. This model describes memory in terms of the information flow through a system. The ability to use past experiences to select the correct reaction speeds up the response time. The Decision Making Stage - Perceptual Mechanisms: 1) Detection  2) Comparison  3) Recognition (D.C.R). Chapter 7 - information processing CHAPTER 7 – INFORMATION PROCESSING Text between pages 93 and 99, answers to questions on page 99 of the text book. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. Explain at least 1 model of information processing and apply this to a sporting situation 3. Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer-lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis. Most notable in the inception of information processing models is Atkinson and Shriffin’s ‘stage theory,’ presenting a sequential method, as discussed above, of input-processing-output[2]. • More than 7 out of 10 studies reported less than a 20% loss of what was learned. The best example of this is a false start by a sprinter – they were anticipating the gun and the motor programme began too early! Both models reflect the same process, although they use slightly different terminology. A Model of Information Processing • How Well Do We Remember What We Learn in School? It is interesting to note that this theory compares processing of information … The following tries to explain the process … Memory & Skill Acquisition Read More » 806 8067 22 4.0 / 5 based on 2 ratings. He saw basic information processing as having 3 main stages: Information Processing: ’the structure and function of all the components that make up the process in the brain where information is received, dealt with and passed to the muscles for movement to occur, - Take in large amounts of information from the environment, - Make decisions about which response to make. This is closely related to the Open Loop Theory as all information is received in one block and feedback does not influence the action. Use a HIP model to analyse sports performance. Information processing theory has been developed and broadened over the years. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. If an event is anticipated then often the movements required for the reaction are prepared and began before the stimulus occurs. The EverLearner 13,101 views. Read more on Information processing. For example, a goalkeeper’s reaction to a penalty will be faster than their reaction to an unexpected shot from outside the box. This process can be represented as a diagram known as a model as is shown below. 4) Finally, PLEASE read your notes and text book to reinforce what has been taught in the lesson. The memory is a complicated thing and the whole process of memorising a skill or event is not yet known. The process is: 1. stimulus identification stage 2. response identification/selection stage 3. response programming stage Aims: Understand how sports performers use information from the environment to facilitate movement by using various senses to collect information. A Level PE Information Processing 2. This is also sometimes referred to as the psychological refractory period. Also covered are Hicks Law, factors affecting Reaction time, Single Channel Hypothesis and Psychological Refractory Period. Materials . A Level PE- Information Processing (I.P): The way the human brain processes information was first applied to skill acquisition in 1968 (Welford), a psychologist. After a decision has been made, the body performs the skilled movement using the effectors. Response time is affected by the following: The time to make a decision increases, with the more choices which are available, as shown in the graph below: Reaction time speeds up as we develop through childhood, into adulthood, to an optimal point where it then deteriorates again. 1) Improvement in performance of a skill can be better understood by reference to the processes involved. The PRP works alongside the single channel hypothesis. Information processing model: Sensory, working, and long term memory ... A-level PE Physiological LAST MINUTE REVISION 2019 - Duration: 3:54:40. The computer gave cognitive psychologists a metaphor, or analogy, to which they could compare human mental processing. Pencil should only be used for drawing. It is a delay in response to a second stimuli which comes in close succession to the last. This section describes the difference between abilities and skills, skill continuums, and their uses in a practical context. For example, when playing hockey, a dummy or fake movement works to put the defender off as they initiate a response to this dummy which they must then stop and correct with a response for the attacker’s actual movement. The 3 stages above can also be named Stimulus Identification, Response Selection, and Response Programming. With weaker stimuli, more irrelevant information is taken in. Two of the better-known models which are generally referred to are Welford's (Welford 1968) and Whiting's (Whiting 1969). The development of the computer in the 1950s and 1960s had an important influence on psychology and was, in part, responsible for the cognitive approach becoming the dominant approach in modern psychology (taking over from behaviorism). There are 3 main receptor systems that take info from the display: Audition: Hearing the call of a teammate/coach or hearing the ball hit the opponents racket, Proprioception: These senses are 3 internal methods used by a performer to pick up info, e.g. Each store is a unitary structure and has its own characteristics in terms of encoding, capacity and duration. Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE, It allows sport psychologists to break down skills and understand how people acquire skills, Before skills are performed we first process all the information available to us from our surroundings. Also covered are Hicks Law, factors affecting Reaction time, Single Channel Hypothesis and Psychological Refractory Period. Figure 7.15 shows Whiting’s information processing model. Name and explain the three stages of perception. When we are performing a skill, many decisions must be made. This section looks at memory, it’s stores and methods to improve memory. For example, if making an overhead clear in badminton, we must decide, where to aim the shot, how hard to hit it, where to position ourselves afterward, etc. AS PE Acquisition of Skill Information Processing - week 7. For this paper you may have: • a calculator. Of 10 studies reported less than a 20 % loss of what was learned it clips the net ( )! The movements required for the reaction will be possible for you to achieve a task terms! Working, and skill learning are not possible focus on knowledge of results or … information processing to. 2 ) Comparison 3 ) Recognition ( D.C.R ) an extended, more detailed example of this also! 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