[73] The rate of human population growth peaked in 1964, at about 2.1% per year. Some solutions are to be applied on a global planetary level (e.g., via UN resolutions), while some on a country or state government organization level, and some on a family or an individual level. Fresh water can be obtained from salt water by desalination. The report Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation, and Risk Management, commonly referred to as the Hirsch report, was created by request for the US Department of Energy and published in February 2005. [316] Chinese experts forecast that Chinese cities will contain 800 million people by 2020.[317]. This suggests that Third World poverty and famine are caused by underdevelopment, not overpopulation. [17] In 2017, the United Nations increased the medium variant projections[18] to 9.8 billion for 2050 and 11.2 billion for 2100. [109] This shows that, limited to the scope of the population living within a single given political boundary, particular human populations do not always grow to match the available food supply. Technological Prospects and Population Trends. New population projections shatter earlier estimates." BBC Earth Lab, UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm 1972), InterAcademy Panel Statement on Population Growth, Haber process § Economic and environmental aspects, List of countries and territories by fertility rate, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 6th (and ongoing) mass species extinction, Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Why Do India And China Have So Many People? A large expansion of agriculture to provide growing populations with improved diets is likely to lead to further deforestation, loss of species, soil erosion, and pollution from pesticides and fertilizer runoff as farming intensifies and new land is brought into production. Another study was done by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) called the Global Environment Outlook. World ovepopulation awareness. ", "Feed the world? Effects of Overpopulation Effects of Overpopulation Effects of Overpopulation 5,993,945 of the Australian resident population were born outside Australia (in mid 2010 ) Degradation of Environment: - With the overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, it has started producing some Many studies link population growth with emissions and the effect of climate change. [91], Agriculture has sustained human population growth and has been the main driving factor behind it. If the quality of human life is addressed, there may be additional resources considered, such as medical care, education, proper sewage treatment, waste disposal and energy supplies. There are also problems with location of arable land with regard to proximity to countries and relative population (Bashford 240). Traditionally, the fertility rate is strongly influenced by cultural and social norms that are rather stable and therefore slow to adapt to changes in the social, technological, or environmental conditions. "Population growth and agricultural productivity." [33][34][35], Concern about overpopulation is an ancient topic. Despite the increase in population density within cities (and the emergence of megacities), UN Habitat states in its reports that urbanization may be the best compromise in the face of global population growth. It may be that the rhetoric supporting the increase of city density as a means of avoiding dealing with the actual problem of overpopulation to begin with and rather than treating the increase of city density as a symptom of the root problem, it has been promoted by the same interests that have profited from population increase e.g. (2011). [citation needed], Donella Meadows argued a correlation between overpopulation and poverty. A Critique of Estimates of Available Cultivable Land in Developing Countries", "The Dutch seek to claim more land from the sea", World oil supplies are set to run out faster than expected, warn scientists, "Gasoline – Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy", "Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation, & Risk Management", "Peaking of World Oil Production: Recent Forecasts", "Leave fossil fuels buried to prevent climate change, study urges", "Human Appropriation of the World's Food Supply", "Pushing Beyond the Earth's Limits The Japan Syndrome", "The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2018 : Building resilence for peace and food security. Various diseases- HIV/ AIDS, TB, Malaria, Water borne diseases [58] Steady growth resumed in 800 CE. Pentti Linkola, "Can Life Prevail? This because almost all things humans value are only frozen labor. Over-population is defined as the condition of having more people than can live on the earth in comfort, happiness and health. Here we will discuss the causes, effects, and solutions of overpopulation. Overpopulation can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates, an increase in immigration, or an unsustainable biome and depletion of resources. [36], Throughout recorded history, population growth has usually been slow despite high birth rates, due to war, plagues and other diseases, and high infant mortality. [82] Refugees from places like Sudan have further strained the resources of neighboring states like Chad and Egypt. The effects of overpopulation are compounded by overconsumption. Overpopulation places competitive stress on the basic life sustaining resources,[172] leading to a diminished quality of life. Overpopulation could apply to the population of a specific region, or to world population as a whole.[1]. Factors cited in the old theory included such social factors as later ages of marriage, the growing desire of many women in such settings to seek careers outside child rearing and domestic work, and the decreased need for children in industrialized settings. By the beginning of the 19th century, the world population had grown to a billion individuals, and intellectuals such as Thomas Malthus predicted that humankind would outgrow its available resources because a finite amount of land would be incapable of supporting a population with limitless potential for increase. [330][331] In the book "Evolution Science and Ethics in the Third Millennium", Robert Cliquet and Dragana Avramov also point out that the one (and a half)-child-per-family ethos is certainly a good one and that we should reduce the world population so that it is no larger than 1 to 3 billion.[332]. Brown, Lester R. and Halweil, Brian (23 September 1999). "[228], As of 2008, the price of grain has increased due to more farming used in biofuels,[236] world oil prices at over $100 a barrel,[237] global population growth,[238] climate change,[239] loss of agricultural land to residential and industrial development,[240][241] and growing consumer demand in China and India[242][243] Food riots have recently taken place in many countries across the world. [145][146], Human population growth and overpopulation is connected to the growth and use of livestock and other animal population. As of 2004, there were 108 countries in the world with more than five million people. Therefore, by using resources beyond a sustainable level, the resource become nullified and ineffective, which further increases the disparity between the demand for a resource and the availability of a resource. If everyone consumed resources at the US level – which is what the world aspires to – you will need another four or five Earths. View Homework Help - Human Impact Slides.pdf from EDUCATION EDUC4132 at Witwatersrand. Similarly, although the proportion of "starving" people in sub-Saharan Africa has decreased, the absolute number of starving people has increased due to population growth. In many poor countries, slums exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care.[313]. [62] England's population reached an estimated 5.6 million in 1650, up from an estimated 2.6 million in 1500. This overdrafting is already leading to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. Although all resources, whether mineral or other, are limited on the planet, there is a degree of self-correction whenever a scarcity or high-demand for a particular kind is experienced. Lifeblood: How to Change the World One Dead Mosquito at a Time, Alex Perry p9. Lester R. Brown, Gary Gardner, Brian Halweil (September 1998). For example, due to the Green Revolution and the fact that more and more land is appropriated each year from wild lands for agricultural purposes, the worldwide production of food had steadily increased up until 1995. It is possible for a sparsely populated… Child mortality has declined, which in turn has led to reduced birth rates, thus slowing overall population growth. [118], However, Ehrlich's earlier predictions were controversial. Wor ld popu-lation prospects: The 2015 revision. Without clean water, good health is not a viable option. - OVERPOPULATION LOCATION Biggest pressures occur in Third World ... Rise in the Birth Rate Better nutrition brings an increase in the fertility rates of human beings. Their empirical results have supported the population-warfare theory: that there is a tendency for population numbers and internal warfare intensity to oscillate with the same period but shifted in phase (with warfare peaks following population peaks). For example, in 1990 known reserves of many natural resources were higher, and their prices lower, than in 1970, despite higher demand and higher consumption. [292], In a 1994 study titled Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy, David Pimentel and Mario Giampietro estimated the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 200 million. [202], Water deficits, which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries, may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China or India, if technology is not used. [196] In the United States, the cost is 81 cents per cubic meter ($3.06 for 1,000 gallons). The human population is predicted to stabilize soon thereafter. We found there's a 70 percent probability the world population will not stabilize this century. [294], Paul R. Ehrlich stated in 2018 that the optimum size of the global human population is between 1.5 and 2 billion. Boasting an impressive range of designs, they will support your presentations with inspiring background photos or videos that support your themes, set the right mood, enhance your credibility and inspire your audiences. [92][93][94][95], Humans have historically exploited the environment using the easiest, most accessible resources first. Environmental author Jeremy Rifkin has said that "our burgeoning population and urban way of life have been purchased at the expense of vast ecosystems and habitats. Peter Farb, for example, has commented on the paradox that "intensification of production to feed an increased population leads to a still greater increase in population. This along with climate change, and ocean acidification can cause the collapse of an ecosystem. Youth unemployment is also soaring, with the economy unable to absorb the spiraling numbers of those seeking to enter the work force. We want to build highways across the Serengeti to get more rare earth minerals for our cellphones. [110], Regardless of criticisms against the theory that population is a function of food availability, the human population is, on the global scale, undeniably increasing,[111] as is the net quantity of human food produced—a pattern that has been true for roughly 10,000 years, since the human development of agriculture. In other places, the dominant cost is desalination, not transport. As world population doubled from 3 to 6 billion, daily calorie consumption in poor countries increased from 1,932 to 2,650, and the percentage of people in those countries who were malnourished fell from 45% to 18%. Journal of World History 19.3 (2008): 327–347. [83], According to UN data, there are on average 250 babies born each minute, or more than 130 million a year. [289] Some point out that a more refined method of assessing Ecological Footprint is to designate sustainable versus non-sustainable categories of consumption. Huesemann, M.H., and J.A. The Big Problem: Overpopulation. Laws regulate and shape politics, economics, history and society and serve as a mediator of relations and interactions between people. Nature 397.6715 (1999): 101. "[138], Says Peter Raven, former President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in their seminal work AAAS Atlas of Population & Environment, "Where do we stand in our efforts to achieve a sustainable world? But are large numbers themselves a problem? Such compensation has been offered in the past by the government of India. Besides drinking, water is used to create sanitary living conditions and is the basis of creating a healthy environment fit to hold human life. In an overpopulated environment, the numbers of people might be more than the available essential materials for survival such as transport, water, shelter, food or social amenities. There are several direct consequences of overpopulation:. By most estimates, at least half of cultivable land is already being farmed, and there are concerns that the remaining reserves are greatly overestimated.[209]. [139], Some groups (for example, the World Wide Fund for Nature[283][284] and Global Footprint Network) have stated that the yearly biocapacity of Earth is being exceeded as measured using the ecological footprint. 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