Penrose also invented twistor theory, which is a novel way to look at the structure of spacetime, leading us to a deeper understanding of the nature of gravity. Edleman received an MD from the University of Pennsylvania's School of Medicine. Web resource: Jean M.J. Fréchet's Home Page. Franklin Chang Diaz is a former NASA Astronaut. In 2006, Nüsslein-Volhard published a book called Coming to Life: How Genes Drive Development, which explains the genetic and cellular basis of animal development, and also explores the ethical implications of recent progress in genomics and biotechnology. Kumar Bhattacharyya: initiatives in the areas of fundamental science, medicine, and the environment. He has won numerous awards including the Wiley Prize in 2003, the National Academy of Sciences Award in Molecular Biology in 2003, and the Meyenburg Prize in 2002 from the German Cancer Research Center. The Szostak Lab is currently researching the origin of life---the chemical and physical processes that facilitated the transition from chemical evolution to biological evolution on the early earth. Engineering is widely considered as one of the most lucrative and in demand career choices, with multiple engineering disciplines and job types, as well as salaries that can exceed $100k per year once the engineer has some experience behind them¹. Nonetheless, the case should be that an engineer should excel in several aspects and not only in one to be considered the best in his league. Some of the most influential scientists in the future will be drawn from this list. Engineering … Her group uses laser cooling to efficiently precool atoms to temperatures in the micro-kelvin range. Web resource: James D. Watson's Home Page. In 2011, Bard was awarded the National Medal of Science for his contributions in electrochemistry, including electroluminescence, semiconductor photo-electrochemistry, electro-analytical chemistry, and the invention of the scanning electrochemical microscope. Watson received his Ph.D. from Indiana University, and a little over a decade later received the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, which he shared with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins, for their discovery of the molecular structure of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its significance for information transfer in living systems. Wilson first tried to enlist in the United States Army, but he failed his Army medical examination due to his impaired eyesight. Niklaus Wirth is best known as the designer of Pascal. Henry F. Schaefer III is a theoretical and computational chemist and the Graham Perdue Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Center for Computational Chemistry at the University of Georgia. Hau's latest research has continued to be centered on cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates. He also popularized the Penrose triangle, the Penrose stairs, and other similar paradoxical structures, which he called "impossibility in its purest form." She received her Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University and was an assistant professor of astronomy at Harvard University. Venter was awarded the Dickson Prize in 2011, the National Medal of Science in 2008, and the Kistler Prize in 2008, among other honors and awards. Web resource: Timothy Berners-Lee's Home Page. Bonner's work argues for the underappreciated role that randomness, or chance, plays in evolution. Weinberg is also well-known for his outspoken negative opinions on religion. Venter earned his Ph.D. in physiology and pharmacology from the University of California, San Diego. He has served as chair of Theoretical Physics at Edinburgh, is a Fellow of the Royal Society, was awarded the Rutherford Medal and Prize in 1984, and became a Fellow of the Institute of Physics in 1991. Web resource: Craig C. Mello's Home Page. He has also co-founded over 12 companies with a combined market capitalization of over $20 billion, including Genzyme, Theravance, Surface Logix, and WMR Biomedical. Jean M.J. Fréchet is a chemist and the Henry Rapoport Chair of Organic Chemistry in the department of chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. Kao has received numerous awards, including the Asian of the Century Award in 1999, the Prince Philip Medal in 1996, and the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal in 1985, in addition to the Nobel Prize. Mullis joined the Cetus Corporation in Emeryville, California, as a DNA chemist in 1979. He is also a fellow with Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. In 2006, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Andrew Z. Have your say and join the debate. Who is the most famous civil engineer in the world and why? He also discusses how sexual cycles vary depending on size and complexity, and how the trend away from randomness in higher forms has even been reversed in some social organisms. He is the founder and former director of the Institute for Genetics and Cellular and Molecular Biology (IGBMC), and the founder and former director of the Institut Clinique de la Souris (Clinical Institute for the Mouse), in Strasbourg, France. Edward O. Wilson is a biologist and naturalist. They were awarded the prize for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell. His current work in theoretical astrophysics is in those areas of cosmology that can be best approached by large-scale numerical calculations. Heineken Prize for Biochemistry and Biophysics in 2008 and the Lasker Award in 2006. Bell's later life was marked by his groundbreaking work in aeronautics, hydrofoils, and optical telecommunications. Engineering means thinking globally. Their contribution was ground-breaking, because they managed to make Newton's classical physics work side-by-side with quantum mechanics. Most of Varmus's scientific research was conducted at the University of California-San Francisco's Medical School, where he and his colleagues studied the cellular origins of oncogenes in a chicken retrovirus. Knuth is known as the “father of the analysis of algorithms.” He created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming. Leroy Hood is co-founder and President of the Institute for Systems Biology, a relatively new field of biology which he has helped to pioneer. Bray has authored numerous textbooks on molecular and cell biology such as Molecular Biology of the Cell and Cell Movements. Timothy Berners-Lee is a computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He is also a member of numerous scientific advisory boards, including the Broad Institute, Ragon Institute, Regulus Therapeutics, and Immune Design. He shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work with Rodney Robert Porter on the immune system. He is a pioneer in the field of computational intelligence (which includes neural networks, fuzzy sets, and evolutionary computing), and was the first president of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Neural Networks Council. In the book he argues that the computational power of cells provides the basis of all the distinctive properties of living systems, allowing organisms to embody in their internal structure an image of the world, which accounts for their adaptability, responsiveness, and intelligence. He then joined the Chinese University of Hong Kong, where he founded the Department of Electronics. Known as the "queen of carbon science,” Dresselhaus began her MIT career at the Lincoln Laboratory. Peter Higgs is a theoretical physicist and emeritus professor at the University of Edinburgh. David Baltimore is currently Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology, where he served as president from 1997 to 2006. In 1975, Wilson entered the public eye through the controversy surrounding publication of his Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, a highly ambitious and equally controversial work on the genetic basis of cooperative or “social” behavior in ants and other species, including humans. Goodall is also a board member for Save the Chimps located in Fort Pierce, Florida. Pierre Chambon is professor at the University of Strasbourg's Institute for Advanced Study, honorary professor at the Collège de France, and emeritus professor at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Strasbourg. Maybe not a tattoo but at least have a picture of him hanging in their office. He serves on the Technology Advisory Board of Monsanto, formerly Biologics, a company focused on development of RNAi products for honeybee health and various veterinary and agricultural applications. He is the Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at Cambridge and former Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. He has also recently published several more popular articles, including a contribution to a 2012 Alan Turing centenary symposium in Nature entitled “Is the Brain a Good Model for Machine Intelligence?,” as well as an essay entitled “Brain versus Machine” in the collection Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment. Marks received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Texas Tech University. As a result of this experimental verification of his 40-year-old prediction, the following year (2o13) Higgs was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (shared with François Englert). Web resource: The Jane Goodall Institute. Conway Morris's views on the Burgess Shale are reported in numerous technical papers, and have been recounted for a more general audience in Stephen Jay Gould's Wonderful Life and in Conway Morris's own book, The Crucible of Creation. Stephen Hawking is a theoretical physicist and cosmologist. Recently, the Hau group succeeded in reducing the light speed---initially to 17 meters per second, and later to almost zero m.p.s.---by optically inducing quantum interference in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Some of his awards include Texas A&M's Trotter Prize in 2007, the GSL Charles Lyell Medal in 1998, and the Paleontological Society's Charles Schuchert Award in 1989. This novel form of quantum control has implications for the developing fields of quantum information processing and quantum cryptography. Fire is a scientist and professor of pathology and genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine. He was responsible for creating the Army's Engineer School of Application and his influence can be seen in a lot of elements of the coast defense systems of the U.S., especially in the submarine … A good scientist is a person with original ideas. As of 2013, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of this magnum opus had been published. He was a professor at Princeton University and Harvard University before coming to Columbia University. He has also published over 600 papers and chapters, while editing the series Electroanalytical Chemistry (21 volumes) and the Encyclopedia of the Electrochemistry of the Elements (16 volumes). Web resource: John Tyler Bonner's Home Page. Brenner has been awarded the Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences, the Albert Lasker Medical Research Award in 1971, and ultimately the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2002. The research conducted by Goodall at Gombe Stream not only is scientifically important but also benefits the park itself. He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1989, along with J. Michael Bishop, for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. He holds three honorary doctorates and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Knoll's work has been pivotal to our understanding of the history of life on earth during the Precambrian period, especially the Ediacaran fauna. He is the author of the multi-volume work. He co-founded the scientific advisory board member of RXi Pharmaceuticals, which is now Galena Biopharma. His recent research focuses on the molecular understanding of the RNAi machinery and its roles in the cell, as well as on the identification of other triggers and mechanisms used in the recognition of, and response to, chemical information coming from outside the cell. To likes the only beat engineers Townes received the Ph.D. degree from California Institute of Technology with a thesis on isotope separation and nuclear spins. But to get started, let's talk about how to level up your character in the game and why you should do it! His lab at the University of Texas tests different chemical compounds in the hopes of discovering a material that will carry out artificial photosynthesis. Learn about the best online colleges and universities for 2020. See the top ranked undergraduate engineering programs at U.S. News. Donald Knuth is a mathematician and computer scientist. It remains the largest collaborative biological project in history. Welcome to Jurassic World Alive. Martin Karplus, a theoretical chemist, Emeritus Professor and the Theodore William Richards Professor of Chemistry at Harvard University. Unusually, he shared the Prize with two other physicists who had pursued unrelated work. Web resource: Martin Karplus's Home Page. The Burgess Shale Formation, located in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, is one of the world's most productive fossil fields, famous for the exceptional preservation of the soft parts of its fossils. These inventors, innovators and educators have changed the world with help of their Engineering skills. 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