Electric Rays got their name for their ability to generate and discharge electric current. Unlike other rays, electric rays use their tails to swim, not their pectoral fins. For the fictional energy weapon, see. There are 69 species in four subfamilies.. The electric rays are cartilaginous fishes comprising the order Torpediniformes. In ancient Greece and Rome, the shocks of the species Torpedo nobiliana were used as a treatment for gout, headache, and other maladies. Electric rays belong to the superorder Batoidea, which includes stingrays, skates, guitarfishes, and sawfishes. Other common names include arraia, arraia-eléctrica, emplasto, raia treme treme, raia-eléctrica, raia-emplasto, treme-treme, tremelga (Portuguese), brasiliansk elrokke (Danish), kleine stroomrog (Dutch), kumoma-shibire-ei (Japanese), liten darrocka (Swedi… Biologists have identified at least 52 species of electric ray around the world, classified in four different families with lovely common and scientific names: the numbfishes (Narcinidae), the sleeper rays (Narkidae), the coffin fishes (Hypnidae), and the torpedo rays (Torpedinidae). Edit Living Systems. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins.They are the order Torpediniformes.. The Electric Ray has diamond shaped wings. The marbled electric ray (Torpedo marmorata) is a species of electric ray in the family Torpedinidae found in the coastal waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean from the North Sea to South Africa. The name comes from the Latin torpere, to be stiffened or paralyzed, referring to the effect on someone who handles or steps on a living electric ray. Its eyes glow amber when awake and don't glow when sleeping, much like a battery. The mouth, nostrils, and five pairs of gill slits are underneath the disc. We, NMFS, announce a 12-month finding and listing determination on a petition to list the Caribbean electric ray (Narcine bancroftii) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (). Reproduction is dioecious. This species is uniquely characterized by females reaching maturity at just two years old which is unusually young for any shark or ray species! The Pacific electric ray is one of 14 described species of electric rays, but is the only species limited to the west coast of the US. They can produce an electric discharge, ranging from as little as 8 volts up to 220 volts depending on species. It's electrical attraction is so immense that a never ending storm is contantly above it. The super cool thing about these bioelectrogenetic animals that they can control the intensity of their electric shocks. In the United States, one common type is the Pacific electric ray, found off the California coast. Electric rays, or New Zealand torpedoes, stun their prey with an electric shock. There are 69 species in four subfamilies.. Weight Atlantic torpedo ray may reach 90 kg (200 lbs.) Pacific Electric Ray, Tetronarce californica The Pacific Electric Ray, Tetronarce californica, whose common Spanish name is torpedo del Pacifico, is a species in the Torpedo Electric Ray or Torpedinidae Family, known collectively as torpedos in Mexico.This fish has historically been known as Torpedo californica but was recently reclassified into the new genus Tetronarce. While there are around twenty ray species which are capable of giving an electric shock Torpedo nobiliana is the largest and the most powerful. Rays are ovoviviparous. Ray Species; Electric Rays: Lesser Electric Ray; Electric Rays: Lesser Electric Ray. Identification. The most distinguishing feature of these fish is their ability to produce electric discharges that are used to stun their prey or as a mechanism of defense. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Disc white ventrally. About 20 species are known to inhabit warm seas, with some reaching a weight of 200 pounds (90 kg). Electric ray, also called torpedo, torpedo fish, numbfish, or crampfish, any of the rays of the families Torpedinidae, Narkidae, Narcinidae, and Hypnidae, named for their ability to produce electrical shocks. It's Electric . About 20 species are known to inhabit warm seas, with some reaching a weight of 200 pounds (90 kg). If they are discovered, however, Rays won’t hesitate to use their venomous tai… The powerful electric organs derive from branchial muscles. Marbled Electric Ray species Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native. Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. There are 71 species of Torpediniformes, in 14 genera and 5 family. One of the newly discovered species is this electric ray, known by the Latin name Tetronarce cowleyi. This benthic fish inhabits rocky reefs, seagrass beds, and sandy and muddy flats in shallow to moderately deep waters. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins, composing the order Torpediniformes. The ray can reach a total length of 140 cm and a weight of 41 kg. The presence of electric organs require a good conducting medium; it is thus not surprising to find such adaptations only among aqueous organisms. Yes, I said electric ray; a small, spotted ray with fins on its tail and the ability to produce a shock of 14-37 volts to stun prey or defend itself. 1. When the Electric Ray moves, the storm follows at unnatural speed. They are nocturnal, lying buried in the sand during the day. The Electric Ray is a huge torpedo ray that used to sleep in Catumbo Bay. One of the newly discovered species is this electric ray, known by the Latin name Tetronarce cowleyi. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins. It's electrical attraction is so immense that a never ending storm is contantly above it. A ray is a fish that belongs to the same group as sharks (together they are known as elasmobranchs.) Collected by: Collect This. They are found worldwide in warm and temperate waters. The marbled electric ray, also known as the marbled torpedo ray, is one of many ray species that will literally leave prey in shock. The genus name, Torpedo, is derived from the Latin word ‘torpinus’ meaning numbness referring to the effect of the electric organ on other animals. There is another species of electric ray in UK waters – the marbled electric ray. With such a battery, an average electric ray may electrocute larger prey with a current of up to 30 amperes and a voltage of 50 to 200 volts, a similar effect to dropping a mains-powered hairdryer (large appliance plug of 110/220 volts in North America) into a bathtub. There are 69 species in four subfamilies.. One of the newly discovered species is this electric ray, known by the Latin name Tetronarce cowleyi. They can produce an electric discharge, ranging from as little as 8 volts up to 220 volts depending on species. This means that embryos develop inside eggs and remain inside their mother’s body until they are ready for live birth. The electric rays have a smooth and naked skin; the head and trunk with the pectoral fins form a circular disk, and the tail is short and stout. It was a ray all right—an electric ray! Many species of rays and skates outside the family have electric organs in the tail; however, the electric ray has two large electric organs on each side of its head, where current passes from the lower to the upper surface of the body. It generally inhabits sandy flats, rocky reefs, and kelp forests from the surface to a depth of 200 m (660 ft), but has also been known to make forays into the open ocean. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The rays are found in kelp forests and on sandy bottoms, sometimes partially buried in the sand. Biologists have identified at least 52 species of electric ray around the world, classified in four different … In this way, it differs from Electrophorus which produces high-voltage discharges owing to numerous electrocytes arranged in series. These rays can actually control the intensity of their electric shocks, sending out relatively low doses to serve as a warning to curious predators and high doses to stun their lunch. They lie in wait for prey below the sand or other substrate, using their electricity to stun and capture it. The 60 or so species of electric rays are grouped into 12 genera and two families. The Pacific electric ray (Torpedo californica) is a species of electric ray native to the eastern Pacific Ocean. Electric ray fish in ocean. They are a dimorphic species with females being larger than males and reach a maximum length of 1.07 m (3 feet 6 inches) compared to the maximum length of 67 cm (26 inches) for males. Depending on the species, these fish can discharge currents anywhere between 8 and 220 volts! Its eyes glow amber when awake and don't glow when sleeping, much like a battery. Young is already born with the ability to give off electric charges. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins.They are the order Torpediniformes.. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The shock from these organs is used in defense, sensory location, and capturing prey. Tetronarce californica also known as the Pacific electric ray is a species of electric ray in the family Torpedinidae, endemic to the coastal waters of the northeastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to British Columbia. Despite many people seeing this species as exotic it is found in British waters to the south and the west of the British Isles with the western English Channel, Celtic sea and waters off the c… Electric rays have a rounded pectoral disc with two moderately large rounded-angular (not pointed or hooked) dorsal fins (reduced in some Narcinidae), and a stout muscular tail with a well-developed caudal fin. That simply … LESSER ELECTRIC RAY Narcine bancroftii Identification Grayish to reddish brown, with many rounded dark blotches that are outlined with blackish circles on the dorsal disc. Synonyms referring to this species in past scientific literature include Torpedo immaculata Rafinesque 1810, Torpedo punctata Rafinesque 1810, Torpedo galvani Risso 1810, Torpedo vulgaris Fleming 1828, Torpedo diversicolor Davy 1834,Torpedo picta Lowe 1843, and Torped… No spine on tail. There are 69 species in four subfamilies. The marbled electric ray was originally described as Torpedo marmorata by Risso in 1810. The electric organs, composed of modified muscle tissue, are in the disk, one on each side of the head. The marine electric ray (genus Torpedo and various species: marmorata, californica, nobilianae, occidentalis) can produce high-amperage electrical discharges by virtue of numerous electrocyte columns arranged in parallel, as discussed briefly earlier. [2][3], Electric rays are found from shallow coastal waters down to at least 1,000 m (3,300 ft) deep. Electric rays, or New Zealand torpedoes, stun their prey with an electric shock. Lesser electric ray – Cozumel: Thorny stingray – Indonesia: Eagle ray – Galápagos: Javanese cow-nose ray: Black-blotched ray, Maldives: Southern stingray – Belize : Stingrays are not regarded as a threatened species. There are many varieties of the electric ray. One of about 14 electric ray species in the world, Torpedo fairchildi, pictured here, is found only in New Zealand. electric ray Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Chondrichthyes Order Torpediniformes Family Torpedinidae Genus Species Multiple. They can produce an electric discharge, ranging from as little as 8 volts up to 220 volts depending on species. The organs are governed by four central nerves from each side of the electric lobe, or specialized brain lobe, which is of a different color from the rest of the brain. Round disc with a thick tail and well developed dorsal fins and caudal fin. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins.They are the order Torpediniformes.. My spear would have been a fine conductor if the fish and I had connected.” Clark nearly zapped herself with an electric ray. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. The Caribbean electric ray is a coastal species found in the western Atlantic and Caribbean coasts. Despite being cartilaginous, Rays have incredibly strong jaws. This is how they hunt and defend themselves against predators in the oceans that they dwell in. How do electric eels shock? The torpedo is named after it. Southern Stingray. There are 69 species in four families. The electric currents produced by some species of fishes, such as the Numbfish and torpedo rays are generated in cells called electrocytes. [2] There are 69 species in four families. The electric ray is one of those creatures that might have simultaneously fascinated and frightened you as a child. Anyone who dives will probably already know that rays are related to sharks – although they look nothing like them – and that rays drop loosely into two groups, those that sting in some way (electric and sting rays) and those that don't, such as mobula and manta rays. When an electrocyte is stimulated, a movement of ions (electrically charged atoms) across the cell membrane results in an electric discharge. Typically reach around 35 cm, but might grow over 61 cm in length. The marbled electric ray, also known as the marbled torpedo ray, is one of many ray species that will literally leave prey in shock. Many species of rays and skates outside the family have electric organs in the tail; however, the electric ray has two large electric organs on each side of its head, where current passes from the lower to the upper surface of the body. Measuring up to 1.4 m (4.6 ft) long, this species has smooth-rimmed spiracles (paired respiratoryopenings behind the eyes) and a dark … The electric ray (Torpedo species) has many shorter columns with 1,000 electrocytes per column, since the ray prioritizes increasing the current over voltage. Before we get to the types of Rays, let’s take a look at several features that make them stand out in the fish world. One of the newly discovered species is this electric ray, known by the Latin name Tetronarce cowleyi. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins, composing the order Torpediniformes /tɔːrˈpɛdɪnɪfɔːrmiːz/. The marbled electric ray has a mottled brown coloration on the body in contrast to the Atlantic torpedo that is dark grayish blue to brown in color with no mottled pattern. Lurking unseen on the seafloor, it has the power to send a jolt of painful electricity rippling through your body. The main nerves branch repeatedly, then attach to the lower side of each plate in the batteries, which are composed of hexagonal columns, in honeycomb formation: each column consists of 140 to half a million gelatinous plates. In marine fish, these batteries are connected as a parallel circuit where freshwater batteries are found in series, transmitting discharges of higher voltage, as freshwater cannot conduct electricity as well as saltwater. This species is uniquely characterized by females reaching maturity at just two years old which is unusually young for any shark or ray species! AskNature Team. The torpedinids feed on large prey, which are stunned using their electric organs and swallowed whole, while the narcinids specialize on small prey on or in the bottom substrate. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A pair of kidney-shaped electric organs are at the base of the pectoral fins. When an electrocyte is stimulated, a movement of ions (electrically charged atoms) across the cell membrane results in an electric discharge. Often survive in tidal pools and other environments with extremely low dissolved oxygen. Electric rays are found around the world, and certain species can pack 220 volts of electricity. The animal was ultimately returned to its previous genus and is currently known as Torpedo californica. [2] In his dialogue Meno, Plato has the character Meno accuse Socrates of "stunning" people with his puzzling questions, in a manner similar to the way the torpedo fish stuns with electricity. Corrections? Like sharks, rays have skeletons made of flexible cartilage instead of bone. The rays are capable of producing electric discharges ranging from 8 to 220 volts. They can crush hard-shelled prey with a single bite! When the Electric Ray moves, the storm follows at unnatural speed. Electric fish can either emit an electric organ discharge (EOD), in pulses, or in a wave-like (sinusoidal) manner. Slow-moving bottom dwellers, electric rays feed on fishes and invertebrates. Feeds on: Small fish and occasional crustaceans. and Heemstra, Phillip C. (May 2007) ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Electrolux addisoni, a new genus and species of electric ray from the east coast of South Africa (Rajiformes: Torpedinoidei: Narkidae), with a review of torpedinoid taxonomy, Myliobatiformes (stingrays and relatives), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_ray&oldid=988803252, Articles needing additional references from August 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 09:55. The Atlantic stingray seagrass beds, and five pairs of gill slits are underneath the.. Side of the genus Torpedo, also called crampfish and Numbfish found off the California coast prey! To 220 volts depending on species Atlantic and Caribbean coasts rounded bodes and weight. Groups like Narkidae, Pyörösähkörauskut, and Platyrhinidae or Endangered ( Torpedo californica seafloor it. 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