The Catholic Encyclopedia. Julius II was pope between 1503 and 1513. Some of the cardinals were displeased with the pope's anti-French policy, and five of them went so far as to convoke a schismatic council at Pisa on 1 September. The Lives and Times of the Popes. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. The pope now looked for aid to Spain, Venice, and England, but before completing negotiations with these powers he fell dangerously sick. October 1, 1910. APA citation. ANTROBUS, The History of the Popes from the close of the Middle Ages, VI (St. Louis, 1898), 208-607; CREIGHTON, History of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation, IV (London, 1887), 54-176; BROSCH, Papst Julius Il und die Grounding des Kirchenstaates (Gotha, 1878); DUSMENIL, Histoire de Jules II, sa vie et son pontificat (Paris, 1873) KLACZKO, Rome et la Renaissance, Essais et Esquisees, Jules II (2nd ed., Paris, 1902); GEBHART, Jules II (Paris, 1904); HEFELE, Conciliengesch., VIII (Freiburg, 1887), 395-588); LOUGHLIN, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere in American Catholic Quarterly Review, XXV (Philadelphia, 1900), 138-47, treats only of his cardinalate up to 1492; WICKHOFF, Die B ibliothek Jul ius' II in Jahrbuch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen, XIV (Berlin, 1893), 49-65; PARIS DE GRASSIS, Diarium, ed. He decided to demolish the original Constantinian basilica. He was again a strong candidate for the papacy, but his great ambition was not yet to be realized. He succeeded in reducing Todi and Spoleto, but for the subjugation of Città di Castello he needed the assistance of Duke Federigo of Urbino. Julius II - Julius II - Legacy: Julius had an extraordinarily violent temper, often lost his self-control, and could be rude and often even vulgar in manner. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 November, 1503; died at Rome, in the night of 20-21 February, 1513. Indeed, Julius II was nicknamed "Il terrible" according to J.N.D. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. The war that broke out between the pope and King Ferrante of Naples must be attributed chiefly to Giuliano, and it was also due to him that it did not come to an earlier conclusion. Under the leadership of the brilliant Gaston de Foix the French were at first successful, but after his death they had to yield to the superior forces of the League, and, being defeated in the bloody battle of Ravenna on 11 April, 1512, they were driven beyond the Alps. . What did Pope Nicholas do for Rome? Cesare was head of the Papal Armies and controlled much of the Papal States. Cesare Borgia refused and was arrested by the pope's order. As pope, Julius continued to extend papal authority and the temporal power of the church, with particular designs on Venice and France. Portrait of Pope Julius II Artist Raphael Year 1511-1512 Medium Oil on wood Location National Gallery of London, UK Dimensions 43 in × 31.8 in 108 cm × 80.7 cm The Portrait of Pope Julius II was created in 1511-1512 by Raphael. He laid the cornerstone of the gigantic Basilica of St. Peter on 18 April, 1506, and conceived the idea of uniting the Vatican with the Belvedere, engaging Bramante to accomplish the project. Pope Julius II died the following year. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Venice, however, stubbornly refused to give back the cities which it had previously taken. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Pope Julius II 216 th Pontiff (1503-1513) The Romans proclaimed that if Pope Julius II had not been a great pope, he had been a good king. Giuliano's chance of being elected was now better than at any previous election. For the accomplishment of this task no pope was ever better suited than Julius, whom nature and circumstances had hewn out for a soldier. Venice, however, stubbornly refused to give back the cities which it had previously taken. This League had been formed by Emperor Maximilian I and Louis XII of France chiefly with the purpose of forcing Venice to restore its recent continental conquests to their original owners. 8. Julius II remained Pope for nine years until he died of fever in 1513. His costly concern with the arts and politics alienated northern Europe Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.CONTACT US | ADVERTISE WITH NEW ADVENT. Another apparent reconciliation took place in June, 1497, when Giuliano assisted the pope in the matrimonial affairs of Cesare Borgia. Although Julius ran the Pontifical States first and foremost as a Prince would, he never neglected his duties as a leader of the church. His ambition was to free the whole of Italy from its subjection to foreign powers, and especially to deliver it from the galling yoke of France. Bologna again submitted to Julius II and the cities of Parma, Reggio, and Piacenza were added to the Ecclesiastical States. On 7 October he issued a Bull deposing and excommunicating Giovanni Bentivoglio and placing the city under interdict. Julius II inaugurated the hostilities by deposing and excommunicating his vassal, Duke Alfonso of Ferrara, who supported France. In February, 1555, an embassy was sent by the English Parliament to Julius III to inform him of its unreserved submission to the papal supremacy, but the embassy was still on its journey when the pope died. Raphael and the Beard of Pope Julius II Mark J. Zucker "Le pape lules, crieur de petitz pastez; mais il ne pourtoyt plus sa grande et bourgrisque barbe"-Rabelais, Pantagruel, Liure II, chap. This is with good reason: his pontificate, which lasted … Nihil Obstat. googletag.cmd.push(function(){googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1402172227320-0');}); However, because of the greater wealth of the Spaniard Cardinal (Rodrigo) Borgia to … In 1503 there were three rivals to papal authority. Pope Julius II would name Paul bishop of Parma in 1509. A temporary settlement was reached in March, 1505, when Venice restored most of its conquests in the Romagna. Copyright © 2020 by Kevin Knight. Meanwhile trouble was brewing at Perugia and Bologna, two cities that belonged to the Papal States. Which artists did Pope Julius II commission many pieces of work from? Contact information. Machiavelli stat… On 23 May, 1511, the French made a descent upon Bologna which Julius II had left nine days previously, drove out the papal troops and reinstated the Bentivogli. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Venice was the first to feel the strong hand of Julius II. Made it attractive for pilgrims, raised impressive buildings, enlarged the library , and encouraged the arts Who was a powerful military leader of the Papal States? He did not leave the city until 22 February, 1507, arriving again at Rome on 27 March. (1) to restore the disputed towns in the Romagna; (2) to renounce their claims to fill vacant benefices; (3) to acknowledge the ecclesiastical tribunal for ecclesiastics and exempt them from taxes; (4) to revoke all treaties made with papal cities; (5) to permit papal subjects free navigation on the Adriatic. Julius had an extraordinarily violent temper, often lost his self-control, and could be rude and often even vulgar in manner. He laid the cornerstone of the gigantic Basilica of St. Peter on 18 April, 1506, and conceived the idea of uniting the Vatican with the Belvedere, engaging Bramante to accomplish the project. Julius II is often known as the "warrior pope" and it's a distinction well taken. The 216 th Pope is truly one to remember. When did Pope Julius II die? thesis, Columbia University, 1966. At Bologna he fell severely sick, and would probably have been captured by the French had it not been for the timely appearance of the Venetians. The warlike Julius II personally directed the campaign against both, setting out at the head of his army on 26 August, 1506. Everywhere he saw and sought out greatness. According to Machiavelli, Cesare was destroyed by his failure to stop Julius rise. He was at first intended for a commercial career, but later was sent by his uncle, subsequently Pope Sixtus IV , to be educated among the Franciscans, although he does not appear to have joined that order. Meanwhile trouble was brewing at Perugia and Bologna, two cities that belonged to the Papal States. Pope Sixtus II In 258 A.D. the Roman Emperor Valerian ordered the executions of Christian bishops, priests and deacons, and among the first killed under the decree was Sixtus II. When did Pope Julius die? He was shrewd enough to understand the situation. November 1503 bis zum 21. Giuliano accompanied the king on his expedition, but by liberal concessions Alexander gained Charles to his side. A warrior pope, he failed to bring Italy under papal control. Pope Callixtus III (r. 1455–1458) A member of the powerful Borgia family, Callixtus III made a heroic … Pope Julius II commissioned the frescoes for the Sistine Chapel. FRATI, Le due spedizioni militari di Giulio II tratte dal Diario di Paris de Grassis Bolognese con documenti (Bologna, 1886), and DÖLLINGER, Beiträge zur politischen, kirchlichen und Kultur-Geschichte der secks letzten Jahrhunderte, III (Ratisbon and Vienna, 1882), 363 sq. On 7 October he issued a Bull deposing and excommunicating Giovanni Bentivoglio and placing the city under interdict. In February, 1476, he was sent as legate to France to regulate the affairs of his Archdiocese of Avignon, and probably to oppose the council which Louis XI intended to convene at Lyons. On 27 April, 1509, Julius II placed Venice under interdict and dispatched his troops into the Romagna. FRATI, Le due spedizioni militari di Giulio II tratte dal Diario di Paris de Grassis Bolognese con documenti (Bologna, 1886), and DÖLLINGER, Beiträge zur politischen, kirchlichen und Kultur-Geschichte der secks letzten Jahrhunderte, III (Ratisbon and Vienna, 1882), 363 sq. At Bologna he fell severely sick, and would probably have been captured by the French had it not been for the timely appearance of the Venetians. What is fresco? The Venetians were now ready to enter negotiations with Julius II, who withdrew from the League and freed the Venetians from the ban on 24 February, 1510, after they agreed upon the following terms. SourcesPASTOR, Gesch. Pope Julius did all he could to save money and raise money in any way possible, some methods were rather unsavory and would be condemned later, such as selling indulgences, but in the end Julius II was one of those rare Pope Julius II. Under pretence of humiliating Cesare Borgia, whom Alexander VI had made Duke of the Romagna, the Venetians had reduced various places in the Romagna under their own authority. Pope Julius II was also responsible for commissioning Michelangelo to carve one of his all-time most famous statues, a Statue of Moses for the tomb of the Pope. New York: Catholic Publication Society of America. Under the leadership of the brilliant Gaston de Foix the French were at first successful, but after his death they had to yield to the superior forces of the League, and, being defeated in the bloody battle of Ravenna on 11 April, 1512, they were driven beyond the Alps. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08562a.htm. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Kenneth M. Caldwell. Julius II was chiefly a soldier, and the fame attached to his name is greatly due to his re-establishment of the Pontifical States and the deliverance of Italy from its subjection to France. On 15 December, 1471, he was created Cardinal Priest of San Pietro in Vincoli, and thereafter literally overwhelmed with benefices, although during the lifetime of Sixtus IV he never took a prominent part in ecclesiastical diplomacy. After the death of Innocent VIII on 25 July, 1492, Giuliano again aspired to the papacy, but his great influence during Innocent's pontificate and his pronounced sympathy for France had made him hateful to the cardinals. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08562a.htm New York: Robert Appleton Company. What astonishing decision regarding St. Peter’s Basilica did Pope Julius II make in 1506? Julius II, born Giuliano della Rovere, Roman Catholic Pope from the 1st of November 1503 to the 21st of February 1513, was born at Savona in 1443. The synod also threatened the pope with a general council. He was again a strong candidate for the papacy, but his great ambition was not yet to be realized. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. He was elevated to the cardinalate in December 1471 by his uncle Pope Sixtus IV. About this page He had scarcely recovered, when, braving the inclemency of the weather, he marched against Mirandola which he took on 20 January, 1511. 44-60, 278-305). But Julius II recovered on 28 August, and on 4 October the so-called Holy League was formed for the purpose of delivering Italy from French rule. All known portraits of Julius have been catalogued, reproduced, and discussed by D. Stott, "Iconography of Julius II," M.A. Although Michelangelo completed a tomb for Julius, the pope was instead interred in St. Peter's near his uncle, Sixtus IV. The Romagna was ecclesiastical territory, and every one of its cities added to the Venetian republic was lost to the papacy. MLA citation. At Perugia the Baglioni and at Bologna the Bentivogli were acting as independent despots. Julius II (1443-1513), who was pope from 1503 to 1513, was a noted Renaissance patron of the arts. In the treaty effected between them, it was stipulated that Giuliano should remain in possession of all his dignities and benefices, and should be guaranteed secure and undisturbed residence in Rome. pp. The warlike Julius II personally directed the campaign against both, setting out at the head of his army on 26 August, 1506. He decided to renovate the basilica to look like a pilgrimage church. Giuliano rapidly became an influential member of the College of Cardinals and servant to both Sixtus IV and his successor, Innocent VIII. Pope Julius II appears to have been more interested in the status of the papacy than his own personal fame; nevertheless, his name will be forever linked with some of the most remarkable artistic works of the 16th century. His faults arose from his relentless candour and uncontrollable temper. He was a … He was called terrible, an epithet suggesting that he was regarded as sublime, even superhuman. At that time a war was just breaking out between the pope and Venice on one side and Ferrara on the other. The first thing the new Pope Julius II did was to decree that any future papal election that had anything to do with simony would be invalid. He chose his papal name, not in honour of Pope Julius I, but in emulation of Julius Caesar. The conclave that followed elected Cardinal Piccolomini of Siena as Pope Pius III, but he lasted only 26 days, whereupon Della Rovere was elected Pope Julius II. 8. Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius II, 1511, oil on poplar, 108.7 x 81 cm (National Gallery, London) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker Cite this page as: Beth Harris and Steven Zucker, "Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius . He was free from nepotism; heard Mass almost daily and often celebrated it himself; issued a strict Bull against simony at papal elections and another against duels; erected dioceses in the recently discovered American colonies of Haiti (Espanola), San Domingo, and Porto Rico; condemned the heresy of Piero de Lucca concerning the Incarnation on 7 September, 1511; made various ordinances for monastic reforms; instituted the still existing Capella Julia, a school for ecclesiastical chant which was to serve as a feeder for the Capella Palatina; and finally convoked the Fifth Lateran Council to eradicate abuses from the Church and especially from the Roman Curia, and to frustrate the designs of the schismatic cardinals who had convened their unsuccessful council first at Pisa, then at Milan (see LATERAN COUNCILS). His efforts to gain the assistance of Emperor Maximilian, Henry VIII of England, and Ferdinand of Spain, proved futile for the moment, but the Swiss and the Venetians were ready to take the field against the French. From 25 to 27 August, 1511, his life was despaired of. While Julius II may best be remembered as the “Warrior Pope”, or for his Machiavellian tactics, he was also given the name of "the R… Such an unlawful restriction of papal rights no pope could tolerate, much less the impatient, irascible, ambitious, and warlike Julius II, whose fearless and awe-inspiring presence gained for him the epithet of pontefice terribile. Taking no notice of this synod, Julius again assumed personal command of his army and set out for Northern Italy. Unable to cope alone with the powerful Republic of Venice, he reluctantly joined the League of Cambrai on 23 March, 1509. Asked by Wiki User 5 6 7 Answer Top Answer Wiki User Answered 2011-09-08 19:17:45 2011-09-08 19:17:45 Pope Julius II … Bramante, Raphael, and Michelangelo gave to the world some of their greatest masterpieces while in his service. It was during this sickness of Julius II that Emperor Maximilian conceived the fantastic plan of uniting the tiara with the imperial crown on his own head (see Schulte, "Kaiser Maximilian als Kandidat für den papstlichen Stuhl", Leipzig, 1906; and Naegle, "Hat Kaiser Maximilian I in Jahre 1507 Papst werden wollen" in "Historisches Jahrbuch", XXVIII, Munich, 1907, pp. Imprimatur. The famous frescoes of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel and of Raphael in the Stanze, the Court of St. Damasus with its loggias, the Via Giulia and Via della Lungara, the colossal statue of Moses which graces the mausoleum of Julius II in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli, and many other magnificent works in and out of Rome are lasting witnesses of his great love of art. Pope Julius II. Vol. The Venetians were now ready to enter negotiations with Julius II, who withdrew from the League and freed the Venetians from the ban on 24 February, 1510, after they agreed upon the following terms. Which Medici became a powerful Renaissance pope? He followed his uncle Francesco della Rovere into the Franciscan Order, and was educated under his tutelage at Perugia. Ott, M. (1910). to settle the quarrel concerning the Burgundian inheritance between Louis XI and Maximilian of Austria, to obtain the help of France against the Turks, and to effect the liberation of Cardinal Balue whom Louis XI had held in strict custody since 1469 on account of treasonable acts. Even before became Julius became pope he fear that the Borgias would try to assassinate him. xxx "Julius II., as we have seen, innovated in Cibo ascended the papal throne as Innocent VIII on 29 August, 1484, and was greatly influenced during the eight years of his pontificate by the strong and energetic Giuliano. Februar 1513 in Rom), war vom 1. The other rivals were Venice and France. The conclave began on 31 October, and after a few hours the cardinals united their votes on Giuliano, who as pope took the name of Julius II. Please help support ... 138-47, treats only of his cardinalate up to 1492; WICKHOFF, Die B ibliothek Jul ius' II in Jahrbuch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen, XIV (Berlin, 1893), 49-65; PARIS DE GRASSIS, Diarium, ed. Asked by Wiki User 1 Answer Top Answer Wiki User Answered 2015-01-12 14:45:45 2015-01-12 14:45:45 There have been 3 popes named Julius… However it … Pope Julius II, Raphael (1511-12) Jonathan Jones. 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