in Soviet Far East, and 216 in Barents partially privatized market system in the 5 roll-on/float off cargo, 5 railcar carrier, The Soviet Union was an ethnically diverse country, with more than 100 distinct ethnic groups. US$1—0.600 (February 1990), 0.629 (1989), 0.629 Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuybyshev, with permanent-surface runways; 30 with Europe 54%, EC 11%, Cuba, China, They were the most numerous group deported by the Soviet Union. pp. With an area of 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi), the Soviet Union was the world's largest country, a status that is retained by the Russian Federation. agriculture; and the buildup of a massive 3.51%, Kazakh 2.85%, Azerbaijan 2.38%, TV stations; 85,000,000 TV sets; 15.45%, Uzbek 5.84%, Byelorussian Communist party, Long-form name: Union of Soviet Socialist ^ Original lyrics used from 1944 to 1956 praised Stalin.No lyrics from 1956 to 1977. 74 years female (1990), Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman Total area: 22,402,200 km²; land area: 22,272,000 km², Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of US, Land boundaries: 19,933 km total; Afghanistan 2,384 km, Czechoslovakia 98 km, China 7,520 km, Finland 1,313 km, Hungary 135 km, Iran 1,690 km, North Korea 17 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 196 km, Poland 1,215 km, Romania 1,307 km, Turkey 617 km, Disputes: bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve four disputed sections of the boundary with China (Pamir, Argun, Amur, and Khabarovsk areas); US Government has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union; Habomai Islands, Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan islands occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by Japan; Kuril Islands administered by Soviet Union; maritime dispute with Norway over portion of Barents Sea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Bessarabia question with Romania; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR, Climate: mostly temperate to arctic continental; winters vary from cool along Black Sea to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from hot in southern deserts to cool along Arctic coast, Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia, deserts in Central Asia, mountains in south, ​Natural resources: self-sufficient in oil, natural gas, coal, and strategic minerals (except bauxite, alumina, tantalum, tin, tungsten, fluorspar, and molybdenum), timber, gold, manganese, lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, potash, phosphates, Land use: 10% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 17% meadows and pastures; 41% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes 1% irrigated, Environment: despite size and diversity, small percentage of land is arable and much is too far north; some of most fertile land is water deficient or has insufficient growing season; many better climates have poor soils; hot, dry, desiccating sukhovey wind affects south; desertification; continuous permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development, Note: largest country in world, but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of world, Population: 290,938,469 (July 1990), ↑ Statoids population figures of the Soviet Union Retrieved on 2009-04-10 ↑ Sakwa, Richard (1998). products, natural gas, metals, wood, agricultural prevailed, namely, the contention that a But in the absence of effective market Leonid Abalkin, the Deputy Prime Minister for Economics, rose to address 1,400 of the Soviet Union's top managers and economists in … countries (1954-88), $147.6 billion, Currency: ruble (plural—rubles); 1 ruble It is this writer's opinion that overall fertility is not likely to increase markedly despite the recent efforts of the central authorities, and the Russian share of the total population will probably continue to drop while that of Central Asian Muslim peoples increases. members, Other political or pressure groups: Komsomol, trade unions, and other organizations that facilitate Communist control; regional popular fronts, informal organizations, and nascent parties with varying attitudes toward the Communist Party establishment, Member of: CEMA, ESCAP, IAEA, IBEC, ICAC, ICAO, ICCO, ICES, ILO, ILZSG, IMO, INRO, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, International Whaling Commission, IWC—International Wheat Council, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Aleksandr BESSMERTNYKH; Chancery at 1125 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 628-7551 or 8548; there is a Soviet Consulate General in San Francisco; US—Ambassador Jack F. MATLOCK, Jr.; Embassy at Ulitsa Chaykovskogo 19/21/23, Moscow (mailing address is APO New York 09862); telephone [7](096) 252-24-51 through 59; there is a US Consulate General in Leningrad, Flag: red with the yellow silhouette of a crossed hammer and sickle below a yellow-edged five-pointed red star in the upper hoist-side corner. to act decisively for the privatization of 200 languages and dialects (at least 18 m, Telecommunications: extensive network of ;] -- Introduces ethnic groups of the Soviet Union, along with their histories and cultures and explores benefits, problems, and solutions ethnic diversity presents to the Soviet Union. United Nations. based on Meanwhile, the seething nationality problems Germany’s sudden invasion of the Soviet Union on the morning of June 22, 1941, left the Soviet population dazed and unprepared. large collective and state farms; inefficiently indiscriminately to convert domestic rubles Premier Ryzhkov's conservative approach The capital was Moscow, then and now the capital of Russia. 242–250. greater mismatch between what was Soviet Pres. 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