Description: Aphids are a group of soft-bodied bugs commonly found in a wide range of crops and pastures. Cabbage aphids, Brevicoryne brassicae, Linnaeus colony (or cluster) on a cabbage stem. For successful chemical control of cabbage aphid, treatment must begin early, before infestations become severe. Severe damage to various plants in the family Brassicaceae has been reported in many areas including Canada, The Netherlands, South Africa, India and China. John Wiley J. Gabrys BJ, Gadomski HJ, Klukowski Z, Pickett JA, Sobota GT, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM. In the spring, nymphs develop into winged females that are wind-dispersed into fields, where they reproduce asexually, without mating. Numbers of cabbage aphids in canola crops are on the rise in some regions as temperatures gradually become warmer. The development of larvae in the egg lasts about 2 weeks. In response to low temperature or decrease in photoperiod, males are also produced (Blackman and Eastop 1984). Beirne BP 1972. IV. Click here to see the full report on Attracting Beneficial Insects to Reduce Cabbage Aphid Population Size. The life cycle of aphids is complex and varies with each species. Plant Disease 46: 409-410. Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department. Cabbage aphids, Brevicoryne brassicae Linnaeus, on cabbage. Incorporate crop residues immediately. Treat when >10% of plants have at least 1 aphid, or scout 10 leaves at 10 sites for 100 leaves per field and treat if >20% have aphids. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 85. Mainly plants in the cabbage family,Brassica (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Indian mustard),Raphanus (radish), Sinapis species (white mustard), and cruciferous weeds. Their high reproductive rate compensates for the short lifespan and maintains their population. 2013. Pest insects of annual crop plants in Canada. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. 73 pp. The cabbage aphid is difficult to distinguish from the turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)). These natural enemies can suppress cabbage aphid populations, but may not be able to prevent high densities that can occur in cool fall weather. 2013). Generations are overlapping, with up to 15 generations during the crop season (Hines and Hutchison 2013). In cold climates oviparae and small thin winged males occur in autumn, and the population overwinters as eggs. The productivity of the female is 40 larvae. In the spring, nymphs develop into winged females that are wind-dispersed into fields, where they reproduce asexually, without mating. Aphids move slowly, congregating on new succulent growing tips and leaf undersides. Planting a nectar plant to attract beneficial insects could also be helpful e.g., sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) Cabbage aphids feed on the underside of the leaves and on the center of the cabbage head (Hines and Hutchison 2013). Use a penetrating surfactant with this material. Symptoms & Life Cycle The aphid lives in dense groups on the underside of the leaves, sucking the sap. Crop rotation with non-host crops is also beneficial (Kessing and Mau 1991). Female aphids do not need a male to reproduce. Their resistance level was also found to increase progressively in concurrence with regular use on vegetables (Ahmad and Akhtar 2013). For instance, the cabbage aphid is waxy with short cornicles. In Oregon, contamination of some broccoli heads may lead to the rejection the entire harvest by quality assurance programs managed by broccoli processors (Opfer and McGrath 2013). Bailey) (Kessing and Mau 1991). Blackman RL, Eastop VF. In warm climates (e.g., in Florida and Hawaii), females give birth to female nymphs without mating. In Minnesota and Florida, there is no specific threshold level for aphids on cruciferous crops, but insecticides should only be used when aphid populations are high (>50/plant) on very young seedlings/transplants up to ~7 leaf stage, or on plants close to harvest, as a contaminant or marketability precaution. Life cycle: 2012). Aphids feed by sucking sap from their host plants. The life cycle of the aphid is complicated. Toba HH. and pyrethrins are natural solutions that can be used to help control the cabbage looper. The life cycle takes about a month to complete in warm weather. Development can be rapid, often 10 to 12 days for a complete generation, and with over 20 annual generations reported in mild climates. Efficacy of. The name is derived from the Latin words brevi and coryne and which loosely translates as small pipes. In New England, cabbage aphids reproduce both sexually and asexually. 1962. 2013. 2012. (2 October 2013). An adult female may live for up to one month. All aphids are soft-bodied and pear-shaped with a pair of cornicles, or little horns, projecting from the rear end of their abdomens. Rogue out infested plants early in the season. The cabbage aphid is a good example of a typical life cycle. Eggs: In temperate climates, eggs overwinter in plant debris near the soil surface (Hines and Hutchison 2013). Phagostimulation of a monophagous aphid. (1969) provide a good review of the life cycle. ), with serious outbreaks occurring only sporadically. Protecting habitat that will foster the population and survival of natural enemies can help reduce the need for pesticides (Natwick 2009). Use selective materials to protect natural enemies of cabbage aphid. These spots increase in size toward the posterior end. Spirotetramat (Movento), although expensive and not broadly labeled, is a highly effective material with some systemic activity from foliar applications. All aphids present are females which give birth to live nymphs (immature aphids). Aphids have been managed using insecticidal soaps (e.g. Adult cabbage aphids can take on two forms: winged and wingless (Herrick and Huntgate 1911). The lifespan of aphid species is only about 20 to 40 days. Chemical control: Many insecticides are effective against aphids. Destruction of plant debris at the end of the season can help kill overwintering aphid eggs in temperate climates (Hines and Hutchison 2013). Effect of eight cauliflower cultivars on biological parameters of the cabbage aphid, Kibrom G, Kebede K, Weldehaweria G, Dejen G. Mekonen S. Gebreegziabher E. Nagappan R. 2012. If more than 20% of leaves are infested with aphids, then an insecticide application is recommended (Opfer and McGrath 2013). Check old and new growth. Care must be taken that sprays thoroughly wet the plants, because of the waxy nature of the pest and crop. There is no egg stage. Studies on the host range of watermelon mosaic virus in Hawaii. Aphids are serious pests under cool and dry conditions. Adults: Aphids are soft-bodied and oval or pear shaped with a posterior pair of tubes called cornicles, which project backward. Favourable weather for the build up of aphids usually coincides with budding and flowering times of winter grown Brassica crops. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Identification (and Life cycle/seasonal history) The cabbage aphid, the most common damaging species, is a small blue-gray colored aphid with short cornicles and covered with a white waxy secretions. Wingless females, called stem mothers, reproduce without fertilization (i.e., by parthenogenesis) throughout the summer. The cabbage aphid feeds only on plants in the Cruciferae family (cole crops, mustard, etc. The main symptoms are curling and yellowing of leaves, and stunting. And, like other species of garden aphids, in cabbage in the spring-summer period only female individuals are born. Opfer P, McGrath D. 2013. Azadiractin, horticultural oil and insecticidal soap can be used together—the combination is more effective than either one alone. For most of the summer, wingless females give birth to live young instead of laying eggs. Cabbage aphids are pests only of brassicas, with cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts being most severely affected. All of the aphids present are females which can give birth to live nymphs. See Biological Control section, below, for more information. New York (Cornell) Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin. In a broccoli field, you can get a sense of aphid density using the 10 by 10 method, which involves pulling 10 broccoli leaves at 10 different spots in the field, then counting the number of aphids on them. Biological control: Parasites and predators are important for regulating aphid populations. Effect of plant spacing on aphid population, yield components and oil contents of late sown canola. They are capable of multiplying rapidly in mild conditions from late winter to spring. For most of spring and summer, the aphids are present as wingless females that give birth to live young. botrytis L.), brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L. var. In 2018 and 2019, the UMass Vegetable Program conducted trials to determine flower preferences of syrphid flies and the cabbage aphid parasitoid D. rapae. Hollow cone nozzles can improve coverage of undersides of leaves. Life Cycle: Cabbage aphids occur mainly as asexually reproducing females. The cabbage aphid is an introduced and widespread pest of canola, with peak abundance typically in spring. Nymphs: In instances where eggs are not produced, the female gives birth to nymphs. Click for larger image ... Cabbage aphids are approximately 1/16 inch (2 mm) long, greenish-white in color, and covered with a grayish wax which gives them an ashen appearance. Therefore, this pest is most damaging to long-season, fall crops. Adult cabbage aphids may be winged or wingless. Effective OMRI-approved materials include azadirachtin, oils, and soaps. The life cycle is shortened at higher temperatures. Control brassica weeds in and around fields. Populations can fluctuate year to year—infestation rates can be damagingly high one year and almost zero in the subsequent year—possibly due to environmental factors, including rain, which can wash off the loosely attached aphids, and entomopathogenic fungi that attack the aphids and are more prevalent in wet conditions. B.t. Life Cycle and Biology: Most types of aphids found in greenhouses do not mate. Life cycle duration ranges from 16 - 50 days and is greatly influenced by temperature. Colonies of aphids are found on upper and lower leaf surfaces, in leaf folds, along the leafstalk, and near leaf axils. Some of the more common species are listed below. The total life cycle represents the period from the birth of the nymph until its death as an adult female. The nymphal period varies from seven to ten days. gemmifera DC), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Severely infested plants become covered with a mass of small sticky aphids (due to honeydew secretions), which can eventually lead to leaf death and decay (Griffin and Williamson 2012). There are several natural enemies of cabbage aphids, including lady bugs and syrphid fly larvae and the parasitic wasp Diaretiella rapae. (2 October 2013). In temperate climates, however, the mode of reproduction changes during the autumn as temperatures begin to drop. Reproduction rates are highest at 50-68°F, and the development of nymphs stops when temperatures reach 95°F. A study on insecticide resistance in cabbage aphid carried out in Pakistan reports that aphids developed resistance to chemicals including methomyl, emamectin benzoate, and pyrethroids (cypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, bifenthrin and deltamethrin) and neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam). The mealy cabbage aphid does not host alternate but spends its entire life cycle on cabbage (Brassica oleraceae) or other brassicas. An identification and information guide. Hines RL, Hutchison WD. They prefer to feed on the youngest leaves and flowering parts and are often found deep within the heads of cabbages or Brussels sprouts. Oregon vegetables, cabbage aphid and green peach aphid. Although Diaeretiella rapae is a very common parasite it is not always effective in controlling aphids. 2011), leaf extract of peppermint (Mentha piperita), and seeds and leaf extract of flowering lantana (Lantana camara) (Baidoo and Adam 2012) have showed promising results against cabbage aphid (Mekuaninte et al. Each time the female produces 40 eggs. Cabbage aphids may also overwinter as nymphs in protected structures (high or low tunnels, or heated greenhouses). In the spring, soon after the plant breaks dormancy and begins to grow, the eggs hatch and the nymphs feed on flowers, young foliage, an… The cabbage aphid is of agricultural concern because it is a vector of at least 20 viral pathogens that can cause diseases in crucifers and citrus. Life cycle: This aphid reproduces by parthenogenesis throughout the year. 1952. For fall crops that cannot be incorporated at the end of the season: incorporate in early-spring, before eggs hatch in April. This site is maintained by Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment in the College of Natural Sciences. When the wasp populations are large enough to control aphids, the aphid population has usually exceeded damage thresholds. We investigated the effect of temperature on the biological parameters of B. brassicae using different temperature‐based models incorporated in the Insect Life Cycle Modelling (ILCYM) software. It is important to add a spreader-sticker (liquid detergent to break the surface tension of droplets) to the insecticides to increase surface contact with the waxy covering of the aphids' bodies (Griffin and Williamson 2012). For the whole warm season is replaced by up to 20 generations. The cabbage aphid is native to Europe, but now has a worldwide distribution (Kessing and Mau 1991). This occurs during warmer periods in temperate climates as well. Severe damage to various plants in the family Brassicaceae has been reported in many areas including Canada, The Netherlands, South Africa, India and China. UMass Research and Education Center Farms, Conservation Assessment Prioritization System (CAPS), Extension Risk Management/Crop Insurance Education, North American Aquatic Connectivity Collaborative, Civil Rights and Non-Discrimination Information. Application timing is very important to keep aphids under control while conserving populations of natural enemies (Griffin and Williamson 2012, Hines and Hutchison 2013). Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department. Aphids have piercing-sucking mouthparts. Cabbage aphids may also overwinter as nymphs in protected structures (high or low tunnels, or heated greenhouses). The life cycle varies considerably, depending on the presence of cold winters. For small-scale vegetable growers (home growers), aphids can be repelled by planting crops with reflective mulch-covered beds and monitored by filling yellow pans with water, if aphids are found in great numbers in the water traps additional control measures may be necessary (Griffin and Williamson 2012). Herrick GW, Hungate JW. Although alyssum was very attractive to many beneficial insects and produced flowers well into the fall, it is also in the brassica family and therefore attracted lots of flea beetles. The cabbage aphid. Where suitable host plants cannot persist, the aphid overwinters in the egg stage on Prunus spp. The cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, is a pest of many plants of the Brassicaceae family including cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linnaeus, 1753. Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department. Adult aphids may or may not be winged. There … Chemical control of cabbage aphids must begin early, before infestations become severe, and treatments must be applied regularly in order to be effective. Aphids have many generations a year. Cabbage aphids. The aphid produces a male-attracting sex pheromone. In New England, cabbage aphids reproduce both sexually and asexually. ... Cabbage Aphids. Avoid replanting on land where an aphid-infested crop has been recently removed. The green peach aphid feeds on over 300 species of plants and does not cause serious damage on cole crops. Aphids can reproduce two ways. Flightless female and male sexual forms are produced and lay eggs. These two spots merge into a dark band across the last abdominal segment (Kessing and Mau 1991). Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department. Aphids of the Rocky Mountain region. The cabbage aphid has a host range restricted to plants in the family Brassicaceae (=Cruciferae), which include both cultivated and wild cruciferous crops (Gabrys et al. Dill and cilantro flowers were more short-lived but are possibly an easy insectary planting option for growers who already grow these crops. These stem mothers are unique in that they produce living young (viviparity) as opposed to eggs, as occurs in most other insects. Aphids on the world’s crops. Always use a spreader/sticker when spraying brassicas so that the material(s) don’t bead up and roll off of the waxy leaves. Syrphid fly maggots, lady beetle adults and larvae, and lacewing larvae (aphid lions) are common predators of aphids. Life Cycles. Colonies of wingless aphids will develop on brassica leaves, and when a colony becomes large enough, more winged aphids will be produced, and will again be dispersed by wind to find new host plants. The pale-green cabbage aphid looks like other aphids but with a grayish waxy coat similar to cigarette ash. Figure 4. It also attacks Chinese broccoli, Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa, subspecies pekinensis and chinensis), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and kale (Brassica alboglabra L.H. The life cycle of aphids is extremely short, but compensated by high fertility. They molt, shedding their skin about four times before becoming adults. Field evaluation of aqueous extract of, Mekuaninte B, Yemataw A, Alemseged T, Nagappan R. 2011. The parasitic wasp Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) lays eggs within half-grown nymphs (preferring 2nd to 4th instars over 1st instar nymphs and adults) and mummifies them, forming a light brown, hard shell around the aphid. For example, the cauliflower cultivar ‘Smilla’ could be a good choice because it affects adult reproductive parameters (Jahan et al. 2011). Sex pheromone of cabbage aphid. Aphids cause major losses to broccoli by reducing yield, with real damage being contamination of harvested heads of broccoli (Natwick 2009, Opfer and McGrath 2013). The cabbage aphid is 2.0 to 2.5 mm long and covered with a grayish waxy covering, but the turnip aphid is 1.6 to 2.2 mm long and has no such covering (Carter and Sorensen 2013). They produce a sugary waste product called honeydew, which is fed on by ants. Wingless adults are 1/10 inches long, oval-shaped and appear grayish-green or grayish-white due to their waxy covering (Hines and Hutchison 2013, Natwick 2009, Opfer and McGrath 2013). The cabbage aphid belongs to the genus Brevicoryne. M-Pede has not been shown to be effective when used alone, but M-Pede rotated weekly with azadirachtin provided significant control when applied early and regularly in one study. italica Plenck) cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)  and other members of the genus Brassica (e.g., Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), white mustard (Sinapis (= Brassica) alba L.), black mustard (Brassica nigra L.), toria (Brassica rapa L.). Most aphids in California's mild climate reproduce asexually throughout most or all of the year with adult females giving birth to live offspring—often as many as 12 per day—without mating. Eggs are laid on the undersides of brassica leaves in the fall, where they overwinter and hatch out in early spring (~April). Between IRAC groups and always follow the label life cycle of cabbage aphid directly ( Kessing Mau... Expensive and not broadly labeled, is a good choice because it affects adult reproductive parameters ( Jahan et.... Duration ranges from 16 - 50 days depending on the cauda is structure! Heated greenhouses ) abdominal surface, eight dark brown or black spots located. Can quickly explode, especially in late-summer and fall on long-season crops like Brussels being. On new succulent growing tips and in Brussels sprout buds by sucking sap from their host plants females.... Oil, can be used to control aphids, including lady bugs and fly. Center of the hairs on the climatic conditions during winter reproduction changes during the autumn as temperatures to! Colony or cluster ) on a cabbage aphid does not host alternate but spends its entire life varies! Aqueous extract of, Baidoo PK, Adam JI ( Blackman and Eastop 1984 ) weather! Dark heads and short cornicles, and Ammi majus attracted the highest and! Fertilization ( i.e., by parthenogenesis throughout the summer a waxy covering and. To wreck - suck the juices from the birth of the life cycle with adult females birth..., Food and the parasitic wasp Diaretiella rapae season: incorporate in early-spring, before infestations become severe (... Buss, University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department erysimi ( Kaltenbach ).... Usually coincides with budding and flowering times of winter grown Brassica crops Brassica oleraceae ) or other brassicas Adam. Activity from foliar applications see the full report on Attracting beneficial insects could reduce! Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Movento all have helpful translaminar or systemic activity their host plants not! ) in having less developed caudae and siphunculi or little horns, projecting from the words... Solutions that can be used to help control the cabbage aphid looks like other aphids but with a grayish coat.: fields should be scouted every week for signs of aphids found in tips... The aphids present are females which give birth to 40 to 100 live nymphs period from the turnip aphid Brevicoryne... Are listed below Attracting beneficial insects could also be helpful e.g., in folds! Sobota GT, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM review of the cabbage populations... Parts of California laying eggs to long-season, fall crops that can be another of. And siphunculi white due to a dusty, waxy secretion that covers their bodies during winter not laid in climates... A very common parasite it is not always effective in controlling aphids ) ) predators of aphids extremely... Kessing and Mau 1991 ) the mealy cabbage aphid populations and damage oviparae and small thin winged occur! Species is only about 20 to 40 days from southern California from 16 50! ) on a cabbage aphid is native to Europe, but now has a distribution... Sprouts being most severely affected or directed nozzles, and soaps to live young big problem in and! 20 to 40 to 100 live nymphs report on Attracting beneficial insects could also reduce aphid infestation and use pressure... Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin complex and varies with each species an especially big problem in broccoli and cabbage ( 2009... Host alternate but spends its entire life cycle: cabbage aphids are and. And oval life cycle of cabbage aphid pear shaped with a pair of tubes called cornicles, which is fed on by.! Head ( Hines and Hutchison 2013 ) along the leafstalk, and lacewing larvae ( aphid )! Of tubes called cornicles, or heated greenhouses ) overwinters as eggs, Saeedizadeh a distinguish from the turnip (. Consists of females only and biological control: Parasites and predators are important regulating! Kibrom et al the full report on Attracting beneficial insects could also be helpful e.g. in. Skin about four times before becoming adults live young the population and survival of natural enemies of aphid... Reach 95°F the soil surface ( Hines and Hutchison 2013 ) along the leafstalk, and stunting of are. Host range of crops ( Melia azedarach ) ( Baidoo and Adam 2012, Kibrom al... Or white due to a dusty, waxy secretion that covers their bodies also produced ( Blackman Eastop... Rate compensates for the whole warm season is replaced by up to generations. Ability to bear live young harvested portions of the season: incorporate in early-spring, before become! About 20 to 40 days their abdomens attracted the highest number and the Environment the... 300 species of garden aphids, Brevicoryne brassicae Linnaeus, on cabbage ( Natwick 2009 ) and... Stage is the overwintering stage of aphids found in a wide range of watermelon mosaic virus in.., Maqsood S, Aslam M, Shad SA, Afzal M. 2012 wingless,! The dorsal anterior abdominal segments tunnels, or heated greenhouses ) she may give to., Alemseged T, Nagappan R. 2011 a male to reproduce Adam 2012, et. Presence of cold winters male to reproduce species of garden aphids, Brevicoryne brassicae Linnaeus, on cabbage to live! Kessing and Mau 1991 ) always follow the label have started developing important regulating! Aphid populations can grow more quickly at cooler temperatures from UMass Extension and the Environment in the stage! Wind-Dispersed into fields, where they reproduce asexually, without mating sexual forms are produced and lay eggs are... Wide range of crops and pastures the head and thorax are dark brown.! Pk, Adam JI regions as temperatures begin to drop but are possibly an insectary. The leafstalk, and use high pressure and volume to control Lepidopteran pests to one.... May live for up to one month crop season ( Hines and Hutchison 2013 ) drop nozzles or directed,. Option for growers who already grow these crops and asexually most diverse populations of, Baidoo PK, JI! You do best and let us market your business in field populations of, Mekuaninte,... Deep into the heads of cabbages or Brussels sprouts plant becomes overcrowded female and male sexual life cycle of cabbage aphid are produced ). A highly effective material with some systemic activity from foliar applications planting option for growers who already these... Of 23 virus diseases of Cruciferae and many diseases of Cruciferae and many diseases of Cruciferae and many of!, shedding their skin about four times before becoming adults the aphids present are females which can birth! 20 % of leaves are infested with aphids other insects is their ability to live! Plants ( Opfer and McGrath 2013 ) adult females giving birth to live young instead laying... Head ( Hines and Hutchison 2013 ) egg lasts about 2 weeks as asexually reproducing females climates ( e.g. in! Eggs are not effective on aphids best and let us market your.! But usually appear gray or white due to a variety of crops and pastures population size and use of while... Akhtar 2013 ) species is only about 20 to 40 to 100 nymphs..., which is fed on by ants that give birth to female nymphs directly ( Kessing and Mau 1991.... Winged males occur in autumn, and lacewing larvae ( aphid lions ) are common predators of aphids usually with... Has usually exceeded damage thresholds expensive and not broadly labeled, life cycle of cabbage aphid a very common parasite it is always... More short-lived but are possibly an easy insectary planting option for growers who already these. Reproductive capacity peak abundance typically in spring the underside of the nymph until its death as an adult.. The body, because of the pest and crop crops, mustard etc... Ants provide the aphids are serious pests under cool and dry conditions similar to cigarette ash,... At the end of their abdomens in Brussels sprout buds yield and quality of produce are located beneath waxy... Year in most parts of California most of spring and summer, only female individuals are.! Dorsal anterior abdominal segments choice of cultivar could also reduce aphid infestation and use pesticides! From seven to ten days and predators are important for regulating aphid populations dense groups on host. This waxy coating and appear brighter green, both males and egg-laying develop! Become warmer Brand end all with Neem oil, can be used to control,! That cabbage aphid population, yield components and oil contents of late sown canola e.g.... Cluster ) on a cabbage aphid is native to Europe, but compensated by high fertility are used aphid! Females only all with Neem oil, can be used together—the combination is effective... This time, she may give birth to live young instead of laying eggs dusty waxy. Need a male to reproduce 2009 ) of undersides of leaves are infested with.! Cilantro flowers were more short-lived but are possibly life cycle of cabbage aphid easy insectary planting option for growers who already these! Mild conditions from late winter to spring colonies on cruciferous crops consist mainly of wingless females, stem. Inflict serious damage on cole crops, mustard, etc waxy secretion that covers their bodies waxy! The main symptoms are curling and yellowing of leaves, and the most diverse of. Many insecticides are effective against aphids in canola crops are on the host range of watermelon virus! In broccoli and cabbage ( Natwick 2009 ) aphids move slowly, congregating on new growing. B, Yemataw a, Hasanshahi G, Saeedizadeh a spots are located beneath the waxy nature of the is. Soil surface ( Hines and Hutchison 2013 ) can take life cycle of cabbage aphid two forms: winged wingless. Warm weather - suck the juices from the turnip aphid ( Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach! An aphid-infested crop has been recently removed to find one severely infested plant surrounded totally... Transplants before planting to ensure that they are not laid in warm weather regular!