In 1894 municipal institutions, with still more restricted powers, were granted to several towns in Siberia, and in 1895 to some in Caucasia. Between 1742 and 1867, the Russian-American Company administered Alaska as a colony. Native people of the Caucasus, non-ethnic Russian areas such as Tartarstan, Bashkirstan, Siberia and Central Asia were officially registered as a category called inorodtsy (non-Slavic, literally: "people of another origin"). The Cadets So the bourgeois democracy in Russia. On the other hand, since 1861, and more especially since 1882, when the Peasant Land Bank was founded for making advances to peasants who were desirous of purchasing land, the former serfs, or rather their descendants, had between 1883 and 1904 bought about 78,900 km2 (19,500,000 acres) from their former masters. The company also established settlements in Hawaii, including Fort Elizabeth (1817), and as far south in North America as Fort Ross Colony (established in 1812) in Sonoma County, California just north of San Francisco.  Were peasants living in tens of thousands of small villages and a highly patriarchal system. France, Britain and Austria tried to intervene in the crisis but were unable to do so. The Slavophiles were opponents of bureaucracy who preferred the collectivism of the medieval Russian obshchina or mir over the individualism of the West. The tsar's most influential adviser was Konstantin Pobedonostsev, tutor to Alexander III and his son Nicholas, and procurator of the Holy Synod from 1880 to 1895. The Bolsheviks, under Vladimir Lenin, supported the idea of forming a small elite of professional revolutionists, subject to strong party discipline, to act as the vanguard of the proletariat in order to seize power by force. Once Afghanistan was informally partitioned in 1907, Britain, France and Russia came increasingly close together in opposition to Germany and Austria. Would-be revolutionaries were sent off to Siberia – under Nicholas I hundreds of thousands were sent to katorga there.. On the left the Socialist Revolutionaries and Social Democrats wanted to expropriate the landowners, without payment, but debated whether to divide the land up among the peasants, or to put it into collective local ownership. The right to vote was extended and no law was to become final without confirmation by the Duma. In August 1914, the Russian army invaded Germany's province of East Prussia and occupied a significant portion of Austrian-controlled Galicia in support of the Serbs and their allies – the French and British. It was the supreme court of cassation; an audit office, a high court of justice for all political offences; one of its departments fulfilled the functions of a heralds' college. While later rulers did not discard this new title, the ruler of Russia was commonly known as Tsar or Tsaritsa until the imperial system was abolished during the February Revolution of 1917. It had to fight forces from both Germany and The Austro-Hungarian Empire although actions against the Ottomans would be supported by the British and the French in the Middle East. According to 1897 census, the registered subjects reached 125.6 million.  According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, which was used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was already a contemporary Russian word for empire. She contributed to the resurgence of the Russian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great. Austro-Hungarian Empire (1910): [Show / hide details] Providing information on the administrative division of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the level of the court districts in 1910. "Between Local and Inter-Imperial: Russian Imperial History in Search of Scope and Paradigm. In this case, the population of Russian ethnicity was inflated. Elizabeth supported the arts, architecture and the sciences (for example with the foundation of the Moscow University). How to Order Photocopies December 30, 2017. Nevertheless, his minister of education, Sergey Uvarov at the university level was able to promote more academic freedom for the faculty, who were under suspicion by reactionary church officials. , The Russian army built two major railway lines in Central Asia during the 1880s. Every year more than half the adult males (in some districts three-quarters of the men and one-third of the women) quit their homes and wandered throughout Russia in search of labor. Under Russia's revised Fundamental Law of 20 February 1906, the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; from this time the legislative power was exercised normally by the Emperor only in concert with the two chambers. ", Neumann, Iver B. , Russian tsars crushed two uprisings in their newly acquired Polish territories: the November Uprising in 1830 and the January Uprising in 1863. Emperor Alexander II (1855–1881) promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. Oliver H. Radkey, "An Alternative to Bolshevism: The Program of Russian Social Revolutionism. "Language and power in the late Ottoman Empire" (Chapter 7). He raised academic standards, improved facilities, and opened the admission doors a bit wider. Statistical Anomalies and Long-Tailed Distributions".  Poland was punished by losing its distinctive political and judicial rights, with Russianization imposed on its schools and courts.. Whether this autocracy was to be permanently limited by the new changes, or only at the continuing discretion of the autocrat, became a subject of heated controversy between conflicting parties in the state. The deep indentations of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland were surrounded by what is ethnically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians had taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva River. When Tsar Alexander II ascended the throne in 1855, desire for reform was widespread. The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which formed the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consisted (since the ukaz of 2 June 1907) of 442 members, elected by an exceedingly complicated process.  The Emperor was not allowed to ″profess any faith other than the Orthodox″ (Article 62 of the 1906 Fundamental Laws) and was deemed ″the Supreme Defender and Guardian of the dogmas of the predominant Faith and is the Keeper of the purity of the Faith and all good order within the Holy Church″ (Article 64 ex supra). ", Olson, Gust, and Aleksei I. Miller. Novaya Zemlya and the Kolguyev and Vaygach Islands also belonged to it, but the Kara Sea was referred to Siberia. The ministries were as follows: The Most Holy Synod (established in 1721) was the supreme organ of government of the Orthodox Church in Russia. Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, and the Russian conquest of Siberia. The October's party was a conservative force, with a base in many landowners and also businessmen. Previous versions of the black eagle on gold background were used as far back as Peter the Great's time. Russia's nationalist diplomats and generals persuaded Alexander II to force the Ottomans to sign the Treaty of San Stefano in March 1878, creating an enlarged, independent Bulgaria that stretched into the southwestern Balkans. Under Alexander III, however, by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos. However, instead of receiving their lands as a gift, the freed peasants had to pay a special tax for what amounted to their lifetime to the government, which in turn paid the landlords a generous price for the land that they had lost. In September 1914, in order to relieve pressure on France, the Russians were forced to halt a successful offensive against Austro-Hungary in Galicia in order to attack German-held Silesia. Food and fuel were in short supply, casualties were increasing, and inflation was mounting. The Crown paid the landlord and the peasants had to repay the Crown, for forty-nine years at 6% interest. Highly qualified teachers arrived from exile in France, where they fled the revolution. Emperor Peter the Great (1682–1725) fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power. The throne passed to Alexander III (1881–1894), a reactionary who revived the maxim of "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality" of Nicholas I. With a population of 150 million people, the Russian Empire, seems to have suffered proportionally fewer losses during the war than France or Germany. Some provinces and regions were united in general governorships, such as those centered in Warsaw, Irkutsk, Kiev, and Moscow, and in the region of Amur, the Steppes, Turkestan, and Finnish lands. The Orthodox hierarchy was suspicious of education – they saw no religious need whatever for literacy. Lastly, it promulgated new laws, a function which theoretically gave it a power akin to that of the Supreme Court of the United States, of rejecting measures not in accordance with fundamental laws. After a short reign of his widow Catherine I, the crown passed to empress Anna. In addition there were governors-general, generally placed over several governorates and armed with more extensive powers usually including the command of the troops within the limits of their jurisdiction. Between 1993 and 2008, Russia’s population saw a considerable decline in its population from 148.37 million to 143.25. , The situation of the former serf-proprietors was also unsatisfactory. Dubnow deemed the areas of the empire in which Jews were permitted to live—the so-called Pale of Settlement—the largest ghetto in the world, an… In 1897, it had a population of 128,200,000 (1897 year). During his reign Russia declared the Franco-Russian Alliance to contain the growing power of Germany, completed the conquest of Central Asia and demanded important territorial and commercial concessions from the Qing. Novgorod Republic • Vladimir-Suzdal It recorded demographic data as of 28 January [O.S. Provisionally, then, the Russian governmental system may perhaps be best defined as "a limited monarchy under an autocratic emperor". The Russian Empire was the only allied belligerent on the Eastern Front. Everyone began to mobilize, and Berlin decided to act before the others were ready to fight, first invading Belgium and France in the west, and then Russia in the east. That the Duma had any radical elements was mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns — Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Kyiv, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Łódź. The Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on the ideological doctrine of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905, when a semi-constitutional monarchy was established. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system. (2004) "The Siberian Frontier and Russia's Position in World History,", Hellie, Richard. The millions of rubles of redemption money received from the crown was spent without any real or lasting agricultural improvements having been effected. "Rehabilitating Tsarism: The Imperial Russian State and Its Historians. The countryside was divided into new provinces and districts. The Russian Empire was the third largest in history, had a far reaching influence over the world, and was ruled over by only a handful of families. All owners of houses, and tax-paying merchants, artisans and workmen are enrolled on lists in a descending order according to their assessed wealth. of self-government and numerous privileges in matters affecting education, police and the administration of local justice. The Trans-Caspian Railway began at Krasnovodsk on the Caspian Sea and reached Bukhara, Samarkand, and Tashkent. The system established by the law of 1864 was significant in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the Senate, as the supreme court of cassation. Today, Russia's population is approximately 144 million. State service was abolished, and Catherine delighted the nobles further by turning over to them most state functions in the provinces. Russian Empire. The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which was not inhabited by Slavs, but by Baltic and Finnic peoples and by Germans. Wikipedia. , In 1894, Alexander III was succeeded by his son, Nicholas II, who was committed to retaining the autocracy that his father had left him. Center – the city of Kiev. The peasants were represented by delegates selected by the regional subdivisions called volosts. Wikipedia. Since about the same time a process of Russification was being carried out in the same provinces, in all departments of administration, in the higher schools and in the Imperial University of Dorpat, the name of which was altered to Yuriev. No! Following the defeat of Napoleon, Alexander I had been ready to discuss constitutional reforms, but though a few were introduced, no major changes were attempted. Qing China and India took the first and second largest population in the world, while Russian Empire had the third place. Subdivisions of the Russian Empire by largest ethnolinguistic group (1897).svg 4,648 × 2,744; 693 KB. , Although the Russian Empire played a leading political role in the next century, thanks to its defeat of Napoleonic France, its retention of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree. "The economic development of Russia. While the modern Russian Federation currently controls the Kaliningrad Oblast, which comprised the northern part of East Prussia, this differs from the area captured by the Empire in 1914, though there was some overlap: Gusev (Gumbinnen in German) was the site of the initial Russian victory. The liberal elements among industrial capitalists and nobility believed in peaceful social reform and a constitutional monarchy, forming the Constitutional Democratic Party or Kadets. In Ukraine, where the allotments were personal (the mir existing only among state peasants), the state of affairs does not differ for the better, on account of the high redemption taxes. Police spies were planted everywhere. Regional Thematic Articles. At the Congress of Berlin in July 1878, Russia agreed to the creation of a smaller Bulgaria, as an autonomous principality inside the Ottoman Empire. 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