Brown and red colour of the small twigs and needles indicate the disease. The discussion will be limited to diseases caused by microorganisms. sunflower diseases, insects, genetic abnormalities, and abiotic problems common in France was written by Lamarque (1985). Tweet. Seed dressing with thiram + carboxin (2:1) at 3-6 g/kg of seed is found to be effective control of the seedling phase of the plant. Symptoms of the head rot phase first appear as water-soaked areas on the back or front of the sunflower seed head. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Application of sulphur fungicides, sulphur dust (15 kg/ ha) or wettable sulphur 0.2% or mixture of sulphur + zineb also gives good control of the disease. In severe cases, the seeds are transformed into a black powdery mass. In the early stage of the disease, it can be sprayed with 500 times of 50% methyltobuzin WP or controlled with Bordeaux solution of the same amount. Here is a list of nine major diseases of Sunflower: 1. 15th Int. Sunflowers offer the gardener both beautiful yellow flowers and seeds that have many uses. Inter specific hybrids of H. tuberosus xH. Presence of six genetically distinct groups was observed among 21 isolates of A. helianthi by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. • Host: vulnerability, varietal reactions, availability of resistant lines, multiple hosts, seed dressings. Most oilseed and confectionary hybrids have good to excellent resistance to most races of rust. Application of wettable sulphur 0.2% or karathane 0.2% or propiconazole 0.1% or difenoconazole 0.05% three times at 15 days interval effectively controls the disease. Rust Disease 5. The disease appears in winter crop also. Amzalek and Cohen (2007) reported that DL-3-amino-n- butanoic acid (DL-b-aminobutyric acid [BABA]) was the most effective and sodium salicylate (NaSA) was the least effective in protecting against rust. Sclerotinia head and stalk rots of sunflower are caused by a fungus known as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.This fungus is able to infect a wide range of field crops including soybeans, beans, canola and lupines as well as various vegetable crops. The major reduction in yield occurs when plants infected by the disease is due to rapid wilting and loss of leaf tissue. Besides, the use of organic insecticides can be used as well. Intercropping sunflower with groundnut in the ratio of 6 : 2 reduces the disease incidence. At least 30 diseases, caused by various fungi, bacteria and viruses, have been identified on wild or cultivated sunflower, but only a few are of economic significance as far as causing yield losses. They can live longer and normally exhibit dormancy for a period of variable length in soil, seed and plant debris. When it comes in contact with the host plant, the fungus is indiscriminate and can invade roots at any site. Mid September planting of sunflower in Nainital and Tarai region of Uttaranchal keeps the crop free from major diseases particularly with low infection of leaf spot. The disease spreads rapidly in rainy season and the conidia spread by wind and splashing water. 1997) including French (CETIOM 2015), Portuguese (Leite 1997), Serbo-Croatian (Maric et al. Later planting in June or July can also help. UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Strengthening Nebraska's Agricultural Economy. The disease also causes lodging that incurs indirect loss. The disease appears generally 40 days after sowing. Addition of amendments like oat straw and finely grounded castor and neem oilcakes in the infested soil reduce the inoculum in the soil and disease incidence. Charcoal Rot Disease 7. Share Your Word File Higher the thrips incidence more is the incidence of necrosis. These seizures commonly occur when the child looks at a bright light source, like the sun, and waves their hand in front of their eyes. Removal and burning of infected crop residues minimizes initial inoculum. Natural Pest and Disease Control – RUSTS: these are fungal diseases. Removal of weeds and elimination of infected plant residue minimizes the disease incidence. The wilt can spread through root contacts between adjacent plants. Rouging of infected plants before flowering helps to destroy the virus source and spread of the disease. The sunflower field with 60% Sclerotinia wilt infected plants reduces the seed yield by more than 70%. Rare generalized tonic-clonic seizures may occur following the absence or myoclonic seizure. Alternaria Leaf Blight Disease 3. The diseases can also be managed by using resistant or tolerant varieties and the correct plant spacing. Oil from Rhizopus head rot infected seed has very much higher free fatty acid content. The conidia are capable of germinating even under dry conditions with low humidity and hence the secondary infection takes place very rapidly. The fungus produces conidia, which are wind disseminated causing secondary spread. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Mostly the disease needs two plant species to complete the cycle. Hyperparasite Cicinnobolus cesatii is often found to parasitize the conidial stage of the mildew. The spring crop sown in late February will have higher incidence than the crop sown in first week of January. Seedling blight caused by Alternaria may develop when sunflower plants emerge in rainy season on Alternaria infested land. Powdery Mildew Disease 9. During the monsoon season in the vicinity of Pune area, the mildew was parasitized by Cicinnobolus sp., preventing the formation of cleistothecia, whereas in winter season, the mildew remain free from any infection of hyperparasite and it grows rapidly leading to the formation of cleistothecia. The main source of inoculum was identified as the pollen grains of infected crop plants or weeds. Downy mildew disease was noticed in India in 1984 and presently race 1 is present. Uredia, sporidia, pycnia and aecia may appear on volunteer seedlings among plant debris of the previous years crops and thus the fungus survives on such volunteer plants. Identification and control of diseases is one of the most important components in boosting the production. Number of genotypes comprising of CMS, R lines, germplasm accessions and derivatives of wild sunflower were evaluated and none of them are resistant. How to Treat Sunflower Pests. Sclerotinia disease of sunflower: A devastating pathogen. Significant progress in sunflower pest management has been made and undoubtedly will continue to be made in the future to aid successful sunflower production. Downy Mildew Disease 4. It can cause 30-46% reduction in seed weight. The loss in germination varies from 23 to 32%. A differential excretion of coumarins to the leaf surface was also observed among genotypes, with the highest levels corresponding to the most resistant genotype and the lowest to the most susceptible. The disease produces different types of symptoms and sometimes it becomes difficult to identify the disease based on these symptoms alone. The disease severity increased with each increment of added nitrogen up to 120 kg/h. Metalaxyl fungicide i.e., APRON 35 ES was found to be highly effective in reducing the incidence of downy mildew disease, even in sick plot conditions, when seeds were treated with the chemical at 105 g a.i./100 kg (3 ml / kg of seed). Biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum Rifai grown on finger millet seeds or on straw pieces incorporated into soil reduces the soil pathogen. The fungus over winters and survives in soil as hard, black sclerotia. The susceptibility of heads increases from the bud stage up to the full bloom and ripening stages. Our Sunflower Pest Solutions resource offers insight on the pests that threaten yield and the products that can help you meet the quality and yield requirements of your sunflower contract. Pre sowing flooding for 30 days, seed treatment with carbendazim at 0.2% followed by addition of Trichoderma harzianum at 2 g/kg soil and spraying of carbendazim at 0.2% after appearance of wilt proved highly effective for management of Sclerotinia wilt. show resistance to powdery mildew. There are three labeled products for the control of rust on sunflower: Folicur, Headline and Quadris. Spraying of benomyl at 0.1% two times at the budding and at early flowering stage give better control of the disease. This disease is very common on senescing leaves but is of little consequence in the traditional production regions of the High Plains and Northern Plains. (University of Namibia) Dissertation submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the Discipline of Plant Pathology Crop rotation for 3 to 5 years with non host crops reduce the sclerotia in the soil. Afterwards, the plant recovers very quickly. The toxin from A. helianthi was isolated and identified as 3- propyl,4 hydroxy,2- oxo-2, 3 dihydro furone. The disease was reported from Madhya Pradesh and Punjab also. In general, the disease occurrence has been erratic and its incidence varies from season to season and place to place. This is further compounded by the presence of native sunflower plants that occur as weeds and may serve as reservoirs for disease-causing pathogens and insects. Iprodione and propiconazole 0.1% are very effective and economical in controlling the disease. Pre sowing irrigation followed by one irrigation at 10 or more days after sowing reduces disease considerably in endemic areas. The economic impact of ALB caused by A. alternata on sunflower in South Africa is unknown and there are currently no fungicide treatments registered for its control. TOS4. It causes a wide range of diseases in sunflower including base, crown, root, stalk and stem rots, and head rots. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2020-1201-01 AuthorsFebina Mathew, South Dakota State University, Brookings, … Infected plant debris of the previous crop season should be removed and destroyed from the field. Sclerotium Wilt and Collar Rot Disease 6. Spraying of mancozeb or zineb at 0.25% two to three times at 10 days interval is very effective in control of the disease. Powdery Mildew Disease 9. Mostly the disease needs two plant species to complete the cycle. As would be expected, the increase in production acreage also increases the potential for disease problems. The fungus can … Application of balanced dose of NPK fertilizers reduces the infection, as the high incidence of the disease may be due to high nitrogen and low phosphorus and potassium. DISEASES OF SUNFLOWER AND CASTOR 1. Six-year crop rotation in sunflower with groundnut and pigeon-pea is advisable in endemic areas. The fungus survives through sclerotia and mycelial strands in soil and seed. However the disease can have significant yield losses in hot and humid areas. Insects and diseases Although a number of insects and diseases may attack sunflower, the effects are usually not serious enough to hamper yield. The virus is transmitted through sap, but failed to transmit through seed and grafting. Sunflower pest and disease control measures. ex Fr) Pollaci). The mycelium grows saprophytically and over winters on sunflower stalks. 11. Sunflowers are popular mainstays in many home gardens and growing them can be especially rewarding. Seeds produced by affected plants show significantly smaller and higher seeds with a high hull percentage and lower oil content. March 2015. View project Project Content Guidelines 2. † Includes wheat, oats, rye and sorghum. High yielding hybrids such as BSH-1, KBSH-1, ICI-302, PKVSH- 27, DSH-1, NSH-22, ITC-601, MSFH-17, SPIC-105, Jwalamukhi, NARF- 114 and varieties viz., PKVSF-9, Sidheswar are resistant to downy mildew. Knowing what to look for is crucial in determining your course of action. Treating after the R6 stage tends to be less economically effective. Clean cultivation and removal of volunteer sunflower plants carrying infection reduces the primary inoculum. The fungus survives as sclerotia or mycelium in infected plant residue and soil. Sunflowers offer the gardener both beautiful yellow flowers and seeds that have many uses. aptata. tuberosus, while the diploid annuals were susceptible. In northern parts of India, 10 % of the plants are killed due to Sclerotinia wilt causing a direct loss of 10% in yield. The fungus also causes root rot and wilt, stem or stalk rot and head rot. Spraying of imidacloprid 0.01% or oxydemeton methyl 0.025%, three times at 15 days interval starting from 15 days after sowing was effective in control of insect vectors. Sunflower Assoc. Sunflower plants suffering from boron deficiency become more susceptible to downy mildew. The virus is transmitted by insect vector thrips. Wild species of sunflower i.e., Helianthus debilis, H. californicus DC, H.ciliaris DC, H. decapetatus L., H. lacinatus Gray and if. Seed treatment with Apron 35 SD 6 g/kg followed by foliar sprays of ridomyl MZ 72 at 0.2% two times at 15 days interval provides effective control. Here is a list of nine major diseases of Sunflower: 1. Injury to the flower head is necessary for infection. Among the pests of sunflower in the period of seed germination, the larvae of click beetles, the wireworm, the dark beetle beetles, and the pollen eaters, are the most dangerous ones. An account of important sunflower pests is discussed for brief understanding low yield of sunflower crop in Pakistan. Spraying of propiconazole 0.1% three times at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing effectively reduced the leaf blight incidence. Diseases of Sunflower: Wet soil conditions and temperature > 27°C were detrimental for survival of sclerotia, however dry soil at 5°C are favourable for sclerotial survival and viability and they can survive for 2-3 years in soil. ... Fungi control the fungus. The correlation between increase in disease intensity (25-96%) and reduction in yield components and oil content is negative. Sunflower has gained popularity and acreage among the new oilseed crops introduced. Flowers from affected plants do not attain full size and yield few seeds. A field like a yellow carpet, against the background of a blue sky, has always attracted the eye of passersby. The 120-page book has over 100 color photographs plus keys to However, people are not the only ones enjoying this plant. Seedlings were more susceptible than adult plants. runvonii, H. petiolaris ssp. Three day old seedlings were more susceptible to systemic infection. Use cultural practices that conserve soil moisture such as irrigation, weed control, reduced plant populations, and reduced tillage or no-till. Avoid high nitrogen rates and high plant populations. Chemical seed treatment with fungicides significantly reduces seed-borne leaf diseases. Heavy soils with poor drainage favours the disease development. The economic impact of ALB caused by A. alternata on sunflower in South Africa is unknown and there are currently no fungicide treatments registered for its control. Sunflowers can also be affected by pests and diseases. praecox, H. praecox ssp. control. In addition to testing the prediction model, a trial was established in South Dakota to evaluate several fungicide chemistries to manage Phomopsis stem canker of sunflower. Shaik and Ravikumar (2003) reported that detached leaf evaluation under in vitro did not show definite trend of association with field disease score in case of Alternaria leaf blight of sunflower. Deep ploughing in summer and crop rotation are effective in reducing the disease. The main step in protecting sunflowers from pests is to keep the field free of weeds and debris. In India, sunflower necrosis disease (SND) was reported for the first time at Bagepally region of Kolar district and around Bangalore in Karnataka during 1997. Crop rotation with non-host crops for 3 years reduces the inoculum load in the soil. This article is a list of diseases of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) and jerusalem artichoke (H. tuberosus. Sclerotinia wilt generally appears during anthesis and seed development stage. Insect pests on sunflowers include American bollworm, Astylus beetle, black maize beetle, nematodes and weevils. P. cichorii Pseudomonas syringae pv. Sunflower Necrosis Disease 2. Most of them have a high virulence, since they overcome several genes for resistance. All the growth and yield parameters were significantly affected due to sunflower necrosis disease (SND) resulting in yield loss of 89% under severe conditions of 50-75% disease severity, 63% and 20% at 11-50% and 5-10% disease severity levels respectively. There are a number of fungicides growers can use for control. Septoria leaf blight Powdery mildew generally occurs late enough in the crop season, hence control measures are not needed. Sclerotinia Diseases of Sunflower. As the disease progresses, the fungus can colonize most of the seed head with white mycelium and brown necrotic areas. Sclerotium Wilt and Collar Rot Disease: The disease causes 10-11% yield loss with 10-11% disease incidence in sunflower crop planted in July or August or in February or March in Nainital and Tarai region of Uttaranchal. The incidental or other types of wounds in the roots, favour the entry of the fungus. In: Proc. It also reduces oospore build up for the following season and the inoculum is destroyed before the seed is infected. Spraying mancozeb (0.3%) four times at an interval of 7-10 days was found effective in controlling the disease with an increase in yield by about 43 to 65%. STUDIES OF INTEGRATED CONTROL OF SELECTED ROOT DISEASES OF SUNFLOWERS USING TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM (ECO-T®) AND SILICON by Konis Elungi BSc. Treatment & Prevention. This disease is very common among the sunflower crops and it can cause significant damage. Generally, high soil moisture and long periods of rainfall favours the carpogenic germination of sclerotia. Additionally, oil from infected plants has a higher free fatty acid content and is darker in colour. Metalaxyl resistance in sunflower downy mildew and control through genetics and alternative fungicides. MOSES RAMUSI and BRADLEY FLETT, ARC-Grain Crops Institute. The most promising lines were from crosses including H. Praecox ssp.runyonii, H. annuus, H. resinosus, and H. paradoxus. Brown and red colour of the small twigs and needles indicate the disease. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Maximum rotting is noticed at the soft dough stage. The seizures in Sunflower Syndrome are characterized by absence and/or myoclonic seizures. Rouging of mildew infected seedlings during thinning, removal and destruction of infected plants as and when they appear before flowering reduces spread of the disease. Sclerotium Wilt and Collar Rot Disease 6. Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease of Rice- Discussed ! Thus it has it has become a significant part of the Nebraska crop production over the past 15 years. The fungus over winters as mycelium in infected plant residues and in dry conditions, survives for 20 weeks in soil. Ellis. The symptoms caused by Alternaria species on sunflower normally appear as dark bro… Application of boron to soil reduces the rust incidence. Disease severity and yield will be obtained close to harvest. It can be identified as powdery tan or rust coloured coating. Pathogen survives through cleistothecia containing ascospores in the off-season and when suitable host plants are grown, the ascospores germinate to cause fresh infection. Alternariaspecies affects all aerial parts of the plant such as the leaf, petiole, stem, floral parts and seeds of sunflower plants during emergence and throughout the growing stages of the plant (Malone and Muskett, 1997). Early season planting or choosing an early maturing variety to escape mid-summer heat and drought are practices, which could reduce loss from the disease. Sunflower control for Sclerotinia rot and rust DuPont™ Vertisan® fungicide is labeled on sunflowers for the following diseases: Crop Diseases controlled Product rate Comments Sunflower* Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria spp.) How to Treat Sunflower Pests. ASPARAGUS RUST. 2015c), but reports of the disease on ornamental sunflower are rare to date. Necrosis occurrence was more during July-September and January-March sowings, whereas it was low during October-December sown crops. However the disease can have significant yield losses in hot and humid areas. Shallow sowing (3 cm) is desirable to minimize the disease incidence. The disease greatly reduces the growth and seed yield. Recent sunflower disease surveys in the major production fields of South Africa reported Alternaria alternata (Fries) Kiessler as the main causal agent of Alternaria leaf blight (ALB). Septoria leaf blight Communications Bldg.Lincoln, NE 68583-0918. Spraying of endosulphan 0.05% or diazinon 0.03% three times at 15 days interval at the onset of bloom stage is found efficient control of larvae, which causes damage to the head. Privacy Policy3. This disease is prevalent throughout the sunflower growing areas in India. Clean cultivation does not allow the vector to breed on collateral hosts in off-season and on alternate hosts in the main season. Classical biological control involves the importation and release of exotic control Within the current arsenal of pest control agents in crops, including those against Phomopsis in sunflower, chemical fungicides continue to be of priority. Sclerotinia head rot also affects yield, oil content and can cause discoloration of seed. | Plant Diseases, Top 6 Factors Influencing Disease Cycle of Rice | Plant Disease. Disease development is most rapid in warm humid weather. The major diseases include rust, downy mildew, Verticil-lium wilt, Sclerotinia stalk and head rot, charcoal rot, blight and leaf spot. Both pathogens can be seedborne or overwinter in crop residue on or near the soil surface. Hot weather and frequent rains during the milk and wax stages of plant development favour infection. The main diseases of sunflower are powdery mildew, black spot, bacterial leaf spot, rust (prevalent in high humidity period) and sunflower moth. However, people are not the only ones enjoying this plant. The disease defoliates the leaves by creating dark spots. Agric. The major reduction in yield occurs when plants infected by the disease is due to rapid wilting and loss of leaf tissue. This disease is very common on senescing leaves but is of little consequence in the traditional production regions of the High Plains and Northern Plains. Desf. This book from Yugoslavia on the diseases and pests of sunflower and their control is arranged under the 2 main headings of diseases and pests. and De Toni). Borkar and Patil (1995) reported that a temperature of 25.9 to 33.7°C with a relative humidity of 85 to 95% favoured development of Alternaria leaf blight in Maharashtra. Pin. Bacterial diseases. The most common Sunflower pests include the following; Sunflower Beetles – These feed on the leaf foliage and in small numbers or older plants may seldom hurt the Sunflower plants. The 120-page book has over 100 color photographs plus keys to It appears in the entire sunflower growing areas of India in low to severe form. The disease is favoured by 25-27°C temperature and 12 h of wet foliage. Mesta (2006) reported three distinct groups from 17 isolates of A. helianthi based on isozyme patterns for peroxidase and catalase. Share Your PPT File. Rust Disease 5. Heavy showers following sowing increase the disease intensity to the extent of 58%. Sunflower control for Sclerotinia rot and rust DuPont™ Vertisan® fungicide is labeled on sunflowers for the following diseases: Crop Diseases controlled Product rate Comments The first symptoms usually occur after plant flowering. This is a culture that not only delights with its picturesque view, but also gives a lot of useful products, the first of which is seeds. Intercropping of sunflower with groundnut, urdbean or mungbean has no effect on disease incidence. Such reduction in incidence has been attributed to inhibition of the growth of S. rolfsii due to water or ether- soluble toxic substances as released in the decomposition process and also due to enhanced antagonistic activity of increased microflora. Border crop like sorghum/pearl millet /maize in 5-7 rows (30 cm apart) has to be grown around sunflower crop which attracts the thrips population and also obstructs the wind borne thrips and inoculum carrying pollen grains of Parthenium from landing on sunflower plants. The rust that develops is spread by wind to other plants. Organic Pests and Diseases Control in Sunflower Production. DIseases 4 seCtIon 9 SUNFLOWERS fifl-fffl February 2017 • Pathogen: pathogenicity, survival, transmission and infection mechanisms, availability of control measures, is it widespread or sporadic? Tobacco streak virus (TSV) of liar virus group causes necrosis disease. Deep ploughing in summer exposes the inoculum present in the soil to high summer temperatures and kills the fungus. Keeping your garden clean and free of weeds and debris, however, is your best line of defense in preventing these sunflower problems from occurring. Gulya TJ, 1996. Spacing of 60 x 30 cm or 45 x 30 cm is optimum in reducing the build up of Alternaria leaf blight. Garlic sunflower oil as a disease control agent. Sunflower is well adapted to this region and can be successfully cultivated in both dry land and irrigated areas. What is the significance of transpiration? A single fungicide application often will be ineffective for preventing sunflower diseases. This section identifies many of the diseases affecting sunflower crops and provides information about the disease, its impact, and control measures. 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