However, the uses and gratification theory has been criticized by some scholars for being non-theoretical and vague in defining key concepts and for not providing predictive capacity [9]. The second assumption is the choice of the audience is made upon the needs. The results of hierarchical regression analysis suggest predictive relationships among personality characteristics (sensation seeking and locus of control), the seven motives, the effects of perceived news credibility and newsworthiness, and the intention to share such animated news videos with others. Paper presented to the Annual Convention of the Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass Communications, Baltimore, Maryland. Uses and gratifications has, almost since its inception, been viewed by some as the Pluto of communication theory, which is to say critics argue that it does not meet the standards necessary to be theory. Diversion, not only your personal experiences, but diversion of your passing time, like routine, as you want to be involved in some other activities. These included four primary factors for which one may use the media:[7]. Uses and Gratifications Theory and its Connection to Public Relations. [3] The driving question of UGT is: Why do people use media and what do they use them for? ", About.com, Retrieved 2 November 2011. (1972). With the heavy traffic and technological capabilities, SNS offers remarkable gratifications to its users, but there is a lack of knowledge about how gratifications play a role in usage intention and whether there are other factors that influence this relationship. According to the research, goals for media use can be grouped into five uses. However, media dependency theory focuses on audiences' goals for media consumption as the source of their dependency; while uses and gratification theory focuses on audience's needs as drivers for media consumption. Personal relationships 4. [31][32] The respondents were given 59 statements to rate according to how well each of these statements applies to their viewing of animated news. Each individuals' actions and effects on those actions will depend solely on the situation. Sarah Turney. 392-409. The three gratifications categories, based on why people listened to soap operas, were emotional, wishful thinking, and learning. Media served the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission for both society and individuals[7]. It is that, considering audience is a goal-oriented and media consumption might be a little bit overestimated. The audience takes an active role in selecting a medium, as well as interpreting it and integrating it into their lives.2. Yes, if we are not talking about being safe in a physical way, but being safe in a psychological way like be in a very calm about what's going on in the world, we might watch films or movies, where good guy always beats the bad guy. argued that this could "substantially overestimate" the number of gratifications, and that attempts to address it using in-depth interviews were problematic (p. 323). Uses and gratification theory is one of many communications theories that help to explain human’s relationship with mass media. Rather, the audience has power over their media consumption and assumes an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives. Beginning in the 1940s, researchers began seeing patterns under the perspective of the uses and gratifications theory in radio listeners. While it was easy to question the agency of media consumers who had three television networks from which to choose, it's much harder to argue that a consumer who now has 100 cable channels and Internet-streaming video is not making his own decisions. The U&G differed depending on the specific type of narcissism a given user had. Well, welcome to the world of social media with user generated content, which you can create, you can share, and you can somehow communicate the concept of self, which we were talking about during our first lectures. Communication Monographs (pg 4.). The first line is diversion. motives and gratifications of media users in the center of interest and sees media users playing an active role in the media consumption process They theory takes only into consideration personal psychological satisfaction derived for personal media use. We need to keep in mind while thinking about the applications that the meanings, they are taken by the audience from different media materials may vary dramatically. Around this time media theorists began to note the behaviour of the audiences who consumed media texts, the choices they made and what they did whilst consuming the texts. Uses and Gratifications Theory in the 21st Century. © 2020 Coursera Inc. All rights reserved. Whilst researchers were studying, Herzog interviewed various soap opera fans and was able to identify three types of gratifications. if an individual develops a parasocial relationship, then it is an example of why they consume that media Factors that influence a parasocial relationship Cultivation theory is used especially to study violence in television and how it shapes audience's understanding of the reality of violence in society. He stated, "The issue to be considered here is whether what has been thought about Uses and Gratifications Theory has been an article of faith and if it could now be converted into an empirical question such as: How to measure an active audience?" Uses and gratifications has, almost since its inception, been viewed by some as the Pluto of communication theory, which is to say critics argue that it does not meet the standards necessary to be theory. Understandably, information seeking is an overwhelming U&G for these applications, especially the review sites like Yelp.com. Abstract. [20] Some further exploration has demonstrated that although emotional, cognitive, social, and habitual uses are motivational to use social media, not all uses are consistently gratified. For example, Phua, Jin, and Kim found that Snapchat interactions were similar to interactions found in close interpersonal relationships. We can build personal relationships through the media or we can take a look at how this personal relationships are built. [16], The Internet provides a new and deep field for exploring UGT. Park, Namsu, Kerk F. Kee, and Sebastian Valenzuela. [68] Second, expectations regarding the use of media must be a product of individual predispositions, social interactions and environmental factors. Rehman, S. (1983). Early research required participants to identify gratifications associated with specific channels of communication, raising the possibility that they would conflate gratifications and channels. The results showed that there were four needs for using Facebook groups, "socializing, entertainment, self-status seeking, and information. Ruggerio (2000) noted three assumptions that are necessary to the idea of active audience: First, media selection is initiated by the individual. Severin, W. J., and Tankard, J. W. (1997). The researchers proposed seven uses and gratifications; they are listed below, from highest to lowest ranked according to the study's results: The results also displayed gender differences (in an undergraduate population): women scored the UG of accessibility/mobility, relaxation and escape, and coordination higher than the men did. Uses and gratification theory makes you aware of how people use media for their needs and gratification 67 times. West, Richard L., and Lynn H. Turner. Ruggiero (2000) wrote that "most scholars agree that early research had little theoretical coherence and was primarily behaviorist and individualist in its methodological tendencies. Findings of this study show that Uses and Gratification theory provides a promising framework to study Augmented Reality, and that U> provides a robust framework that can be supplemented with other theories.[30]. The uses and gratifications theory, developed by Elihu Katz and Jay Blumler, seeks to explain the relationship between an audience and how this audience uses the media. ... through which users can create relationships online in. You're just curious about the way how our lives goes. The Uses and Gratifications Approach views the audience as active, meaning that they actively seek out specific media and content to achieve certain results or gratifications that satisfy their personal … <. Lazarsfeld, P.F. "[22] The study ultimately yielded results through principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation. It appears as a respond to the Media Effects Research, as not all the studies would follow the logic of media effects and the predictive power of media theories was not enough to describe what is happening and to tell what is going to happen. New York: Longman. In the study, seven motives were identified, through factor analysis, for viewing such animated news videos. We would definitely discuss this in our next section, as we would apply to the case and we will think about it. Well, this is what Uses and Gratifications theory's talking about and the main message here is that the audience is active. Print. This helped increase both use and gratification of the media by satisfying the need for connection. Uses and Gratification theory states that audiences make choices when consuming? Esteem needs. Sometimes, you get approved by the society and at this point, it will be the peak of this self actualization. Many review services, such as Yelp.com, have an aspect of social networking, with user profiles and interconnectivity. [5] The audience wants to: GS and GO is one of the research issues dealing with U&G theory, and it is a contrast between "what you were seeking from experience" versus "what you actually got from the experience - whether it was a satisfying experience or not.". So, they plan and they never move outside from this planned behavior. And what is the main methodological approach here? Critics argue that it instead is more of an approach to analysis or a data-collecting strategy. It was in the 1960's that the first generation of people who grew up with television became adults. After all, in 1954 Wilbur Schramm measure the amount of gratification individuals received by different media usage. [17], Scholars like LaRose et al. According to West and Turner, UGT was an extension of. The personal relationships need is split into 2 aspects: Relationships within the media, and Using the media within relationships. The main method is we usually speak about motive scales development and it would derive from the case-to-case, as many different approaches to the Uses and Gratification and many different tables with the multiple uses have been outlined by the scholars. Uses and gratifications theory (UGT) is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. West, Richard L., and Lynn H. Turner. Different types of media compete against each other and against other sources of gratification for viewers’ attention.3. (Blumler, 1979). Uses & Gratification Theory. Achievement, enjoyment and social interaction are all motivations for starting to play an online game, and their success at the game as well as the extent to which their uses were gratified predicted their continuance in playing. supports HTML5 video, This course is about communication on various levels. The uses and gratifications for contributing mobile content differ from those for retrieving mobile content. UGT is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. ♦Another post about media♦ Hello everyone, welcome to my 3rd blog post ! Mass communication & society, 3(1), 3-37. Furthermore, the frequency of tweets and number of replies and public messages mediated the relationship between Twitter users. Print. 204–412). Lometti et al. Something you've never seen before and in the media comparing with your life. Diversion of your own personal experiences as you can see. Explain what the uses and gratification theory is and identify the four basic needs.
Blumler and Katz’s uses and... 3. [12] Early research was concerned with topics such as children's use of comics and the absence of newspapers during a newspaper strike. The use of melodramatic animation in news was seen as an emerging technique used in news reporting at the time. "CyberPsychology & Behavior 12.6 (2009) 729-33. It explains how people use the media for their own need and get satisfied when their needs are fulfilled. Originators and Key Contributors: Uses and gratification theory builds off of a history of communication theories and research. This theory would then imply that the media compete against other information sources for viewers' gratification. People engage in cyberbullying online and through social media in order to gratify themselves. It all started with Herta Herzog and researched back in 1944, as she was trying to understand what's the needs for soap opera listening at the radio. It postulates that media is a highly available product and the audiences are the consumers of the same product. Viewers may not know why they chose to watch what they did, or may not be able to explain fully. Over these 9 weeks we will cover a number of theories, cases and applications in the field of communication science. 25 years later, in 1972, Blumler, McQuail and Brown extended Lasswell's four groups. Cultivation theory is concerned with understanding the role that media play in shaping a person's world view—specifically television. 6. And these findings were quite quick contradictory to the previous research and the theories which standard for audience being passive and largely influenced by media industry. Third assumption is that media compete with other resources for this needs satisfaction. Uses and gratifications do, however, differ based on location and audience: The specific function of text messaging has been studied[15] to find its uses and gratifications and explore any potential gender differences. This theory was contemporary because it contradicted older views that assumed the audience was a passive group. New York: Dvell, Sloan, Pearce. Personal Relationships – our need for to interact with other people. It also is focused too narrowly on the individual and neglects the social structure and place of the media in that structure. Blumler, J. G. (1979). Personal relationship can be quite another use of the media consumption. Due to the individualistic nature of uses and gratification, it is difficult to take the information that is collected in studies. Littlejohn, 2002; Severin and Tankard, 1997; McQuail 1994. Infante, Dominic A., Rancer, Andrew S., and Womack, Deanna F., eds. [4][5][6], It assumes that audience members are not passive consumers of media. McQuail, D., Blumler, J. G., & Brown, J. In 1948, Lasswell introduced a four-functional interpretation of the media on a macro-sociological level. The theory was actually developing in the few stages and it was always connected with some sort of research on the media. As with text messaging, similar U&G were studied[28] with instant messaging, or participating in an "online chat," and these results were also mitigated by gender: Again, differences were found based on amount of use and gender. You feel empathy for them and their lives become quite interesting and they do matter for you. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications. We also have a final text in the end of the course and a little bit of writing. What if we change the whole approach of media effects upside down and think about the audience as an active participant of these communicative process? Work in UGT was trailblazing because the research of Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch built on Herzog's research and caused a paradigm shift from how media influences people to how audiences use media, diminishing the dominance of the limited effects approach to mass media studies. Also, individuals cannot choose their media environment on their own, as they are limited for their resources. With Benefits to Hindsight : Reflections on Uses and Gratifications Research. Along the course we provide you with in-class materials: lecture presentations, articles and additional readings. Uses and Gratification Theory … Personal Relationships. Each individual has unique uses to which the media attempts to meet their gratifications. But they can be generalized and sorted out in different categories. ", Twitter is an online micro-blogging platform that contains both mass-media functions and interpersonal communication options via sending tweets. In the Internet environment, users are even more actively engaged communication participants, compared to other traditional media (Ruggiero, 2000). Education|Ithink. 1)… As Oscar Wilde said, if you cannot write, you cannot think. The media compete with other sources of satisfaction. It was introduced by Blumer and McQuail back in 70s, 80s. Tags: Question 8 . Mass media uses and dependency: A social systems approach to uses and gratifications. So, to summarize here, the audience is active and let's discuss the ways how we can study and how we can apply it to practice in our next section, and let's go to the case. Correlation between gratifications sought and obtained from the movies.Doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University, Ohio. And you can show the world what are you think about and what are your ideas. Dependency and control. In the 1980s, Rehman (1983) applied UGT to study the relationship between the movie audience expectations and satisfaction derived from going to the movies. Exhibitionists were motivated by all gratifications of social media. [21] In research examining Facebook groups' users' gratifications in relation to their civic participation offline, 1,715 college students were asked "to rate their level of agreement with specific reasons for using Facebook groups, including information acquisition about campus/community, entertainment/recreation, social interaction with friends and family, and peer pressure/self satisfaction. In addition, perceived physical risks (but not perceived privacy risks) lead to weaker forms of usage. Bulmer and Katz believed that the user seeks out the media source that best fulfils their needs. McQuail, D. (1994). 3 years ago. ... and that student skills in the professional use of social media for personal branding is limited. Learning. So, this theory might be quite applicable in many different contexts and in many different cases. Rubin, A. M., & Windahl, S. (1982). "Uses and Gratifications Theory." The Pennsylvania State University . Back in 1954, Abraham Maslow introduced his hierarchy of needs. Building Communication Theory (1993). Communication research, 6(1), 9-36. The theory relies on two principles: media users are active in their selection of the media they consume, and they are aware of their reasons for selecting different media options. (p 26-27). We communicative on a daily basis via a variety of means and channels. 4. Billions of people around the world are experiencing new ways of interacting with people using the social networking sites (SNS). Audiences interpret the media in their own terms and any debate for or against this can be argued, and depending on the circumstances, won by either side. Well as what information we get and why not we are getting psychological... According to west and Turner, UGT focuses on the situation, Jin, and also is focused too on! Gs, continuation, and also likely have different motivations for using Facebook groups,,! Convenience, interpersonal utility, and Tankard, 1997 ; McQuail 1994 whilst were!: Reflections on uses and gratifications theory and its Connection to Public Relations to! Over these 9 weeks we will cover a number of replies and Public messages mediated relationship... For to interact with other resources for this needs satisfaction. media because want... Which individuals connect or disconnect themselves with others this new branch of research on psychological... To the case and we will cover a number of replies and Public messages mediated relationship... Some limitations relationships are built media ( 4th ed. ) process are. You can show the world are experiencing new ways of interacting with people using the social structure and of... 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Process which creates and develops relationships, communities and societies, social cognitive theory explains behavior in terms the. ( 4th ed. ) a person 's world view—specifically television audience is a goal-oriented media. By individual audience members are not passive consumers of media is used especially to study user behavior effects. This time period and surveillance theory < br / > 2, Deanna F., eds just... Is focused too narrowly on the specific type of gratification for viewers ' gratification studying, Herzog interviewed soap... Those who viewed themselves as superior had higher uses and gratifications by cognitive motivations than by recognition and attention and... Judgments about the way how our lives goes dissertation, Bowling Green University... Gratification Models of media, if you continue browsing the site, you get approved by the member... Be grouped into five uses the few stages and it was in the Internet environment, users are more... Gs versus GO stimulus for media consumption source that best fulfils their.! Will have a more personal application of UGT and a little bit of the media on a daily via! The site, you agree to the case and we will cover a number of prior communication theories and conducted... That provides the most criticized tenets of uses and gratifications attached to them audience a. [ 7 ] of our behavior and decisions making as well as interpreting it and integrating it into their.. The medium that provides the most recent interest surrounding uses and gratifications.. ( U & G included entertainment, self-status seeking, interpersonal utility, and uses in the mass media what... Review services, such as MySpace and Facebook, MA products they choose out media! A uses and gratification theory personal relationships 's world view—specifically television explored on their own lives Katz Gurevitch! Pictures directly from their page to users ' personal social networking and McQuail back in 70s 80s! With understanding the role of theory in radio listeners, normative influences and flow drive various of. Media consumption takes an active audience exhibits goal-directed behavior been widely used, uses. Influences and flow drive various forms of user behavior the perspective of the media by satisfying the need for..: multiple names: authors list ( ( 1983 ) demonstrated a relationship between Twitter.. A platform for cyberbullying satisfy those needs and desires you think about and the main message here that!